Bibliography of Citations on the Reggio Emilia Approach in the ERIC Database

ERIC Documents

ED478211 TM035078
Title: Performing and Documenting an Educational Expedition: Using Performance and Reggio Emilia-Based Documentation Panels as Research Practices.
Author(s) Hodde, Stephanie L.
Pages: 34
Publication Date: April 2003
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association ( Chicago, IL, April 21-25, 2003).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2004

This paper maps methodological attempts the researcher made during dissertation fieldwork to marry arts-based inquiry and literacy research. The dissertation focused on the symbolic illiteracies and aesthetic learning practices of middle school girls in an urban arts program, Dramagirls. Two specific arts-based methods, Reggio-Emilia-based visual documentation and performance ethnography, were used in the research approach, data collection, and analysis. The ontological and epistemological intersections of the dissertation are described, and how they encouraged a performance and visual orientation during fieldwork and analysis is outlined. The theoretical background and creative process are detailed for the two central prongs of the orientation: (1) a dialogic, performance-oriented research approach; and (2) a visual aesthetic for reconstructing a socio-symbolic analysis of Dramagirls discourse. The paper also discusses who, by constructing documentation collages and an ethnographic performance, the researcher was able to play and to process the "role" as researcher within the theatrical culture and solve the qualitative research problem of honoring and translating highly embodies aesthetic learning practices within traditional forms of print-based research. The paper also briefly highlights how the pursuit of these methods illuminated certain qualities in the data that would not have easily registered if reconstructed as print-based findings. (Contains 14 figures and 55 references.) (Author/SLD)

Descriptors: Doctoral Dissertations; *Drama; Females; *Fine Arts; *Inquiry; *Performance; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Research Methodology


ED474953 PS031133
Title: Innovations in Early Education: The International Reggio Exchange, 2002.
Author(s) Kaminsky, Judith Allen, Ed.; Gandini, Lella, Ed.
Author Affiliation: Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI. Merrill-Palmer Institute.(BBB37346)
Source: Innovations in Early Education: The International Reggio Exchange, 2002., v9 n1-4 Win-Fall Pages: 94
Publication Date: 2002
Notes: Published quarterly. For the 2000-2001 issues, see ED 464 704.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Innovations in Early Education, The International Reggio Exchange, Merrill-Palmer Institute, Wayne State University, 71 E. Ferry Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 ($30, individual subscription for four issues; $35, U.S. funds for foreign). Tel: 313-872-1790; Web site: http://www.mpi.wayne.edu.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2003
Target Audience: Practitioners; Administrators; Teachers

This document is comprised of four issues of a quarterly publication presenting information related to the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education. Regularly appearing features of the publication include a calendar of Reggio conferences; information on the Reggio Children organization, contacts, exhibit schedule, and study tours; and a partial listing of resources related to the Reggio Emilia educational philosophy. The Winter 2002 issue includes articles on the Hundred Languages of Children exhibit as a catalyst for learning and cooperation in the United States and Canada, building communication and understanding among North American educators, developmentally appropriate practice and the Reggio Emilia approach, and issues in collaboration from a Canadian perspective. The Spring 2002 issue includes articles reflecting on the process of professional development and program evolution in three schools, and a book review of "Bambini: The Italian Approach to Infant/Toddler Care" (Lella Gandini and Carolyn Pope Edwards, Eds.). The Summer 2002 issue includes articles on the role of culture and community in children's learning and development, and the formation of the North American Reggio Emilia Alliance. The Fall 2002 issue includes articles on collaborative professional development and a book review of Brenda Fyfe's "Making Learning Visible." (KB)

Descriptors: Book Reviews; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Innovation; Educational Quality; Family School Relationship; Foreign Countries; Interprofessional Relationship; Organization; *Parent School Relationship; Periodicals; Professional Development; Public Policy; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *School Community Relationship; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; Values; *Young Children
Identifiers: Canada; Italy (Reggio Emilia); United States


ED474781 PS031171
Title: Bringing Learning to Life: The Reggio Approach to Early Childhood Education.
Author(s) Cadwell, Louise Boyd
Pages: 212
Publication Date: 2003
Notes: Foreword by Carlina Rinaldi.
ISBN: 0-8077-4296-1
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Teachers College Press, P.O. Box 20, Williston, VT 05495-0020 ($19.95). Tel: 800-575-6566 (Toll Free); Fax: 802-864-7626; Web site: http://www.teacherscollegepress.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2003
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners

Increasingly, the innovative teaching approach of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are being adapted to U.S. early childhood settings. This book describes the growth and evolution of the work in the St. Louis Reggio Collaborative over the past 10 years, addressing the fundamental principles of the Reggio approach as they are experienced in the daily life of three American schools that have attained a very high level of understanding and practice. Following a prologue presenting a history of Reggio Emilia and describing the ideas integral to the Reggio approach, the book is organized into six chapters. A journal-style format is used to convey real-life classrooms between January and June in 2000, including details on the flow of the day, parent participation, teacher collaboration, the importance of the environment, documenting students work, and assessment. Chapter 1 describes the phases of a day as seen from the perspective of the author as an "atelierista" or studio teacher. Chapter 2 focuses on partnerships with parents, including relationship-building with parents and forms and structures for parent participation. Chapter 3 concerns teacher collaboration and includes stories of challenges faced and discoveries made. Chapter 4 focuses on the transformation of the space in the "atelier" or studio. Chapter 5 illuminates the innate intelligence and creativity of young children through vignettes from student projects. Chapter 6 recounts the significant highlights of a week-long study tour in Reggio Emilia, illustrating connections with the work in St. Louis and the pull to construct stronger systems based on core values. The book's epilogue presents a dialogue among teachers revealing their current understanding of assessment and documentation as two different worldviews: analytical, reductionist, and decontextualized compared to holistic, dynamic, and relational. The book concludes by noting that in many ways, the St. Louis Reggio Collaborative, is trying to build bridges between these two ways of living life in school. (Contains 71 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Administrators; Classroom Environment; *Preschool Children; *Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; Reflective Teaching; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Student Projects; Teacher Collaboration; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Missouri ( Saint Louis); Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED472727 PS030988
Title: Creating Rooms of Wonder: Valuing and Displaying Children's Work To Enhance the Learning Process.
Author(s) Seefeldt, Carol
Pages: 141
Publication Date: 2002
ISBN: 0-87659-265-5
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Gryphon House, Inc., 10726 Tucker Street, Beltsville, MD 20705 ($16.95). Tel: 800-638-0928 (Toll Free); Tel: 301-595-9500; Fax: 301-595-0051; Web site: http://www.gryphonhouse.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2003
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners

Asserting that displaying childrens artwork with thoughtfulness and care benefits children, teachers, and families, this book offers teachers of 2- to 8-year-olds a primer of how to display childrens work and evidence of their thematic learning and project work. The ideas presented were inspired by the authors experiences in the British Infant Schools of England and the child care centers in Reggio Emilia, Italy and tested with teachers of young children. Chapter 1 discusses how displaying childrens work affirms their thoughts, ideas, and imagination; beautifies their world; communicates to others; documents what children learn; and extends and expands childrens learning. Chapter 2 presents the basics of display related to color, lines, texture, and composition. Chapter 3 concerns framing and mounting childrens work. Chapter 4 discusses the use of tables, shelves, windowsills and ledges, and boxes for display purposes. Chapter 5 offers suggestions for interactive bulletin boards. Chapter 6 concerns graphing, surveys, and categorizing. Chapter 7 deals with creating islands of beauty in the classroom. Chapter 8 offers suggestions for labeling displays. Each chapter concludes with suggestions for assessment. (Lists 20 resources and references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Bulletin Boards; *Children; *Childrens Art; *Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Preschool Education; Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Projects
Identifiers: *Visual Displays


ED472379 EF006185
Title: Children, Spaces, Relations: Metaproject for an Environment for Young Children.
Author(s) Ceppi, Giulio, Ed.; Zini, Michele, Ed.
Author Affiliation: Reggio Children, Reggio Emilia (Italy).(BBB36094); Domus Academy Research Center, Milan (Italy).(BBB37299)
Pages: 160
Publication Date: 1998
ISBN: 88-87960-17-8
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Reggio Children, Piazza della Vittoria, 6, 42100, Reggio Emilia, Italy ($36). Tel: 39-0522-455416; Fax: 39-0522-455621; e-mail: info@reggiochildren.it.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: Italy
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2003

This book describes a project on designing spaces for young children; the aim of the project is to enable a "meeting of minds" between the pedagogical philosophy of Reggio Emilia preschools and the innovative experiences within the culture of design and architecture. The book presents the project in three main sections: (1) a critical analysis of the cumulative experience of the municipal early childhood system of Reggio Emilia, with the aim of formulating general criteria of quality and presenting possible scenarios, using keywords and metaphors, in an attempt to identify the desirable characteristics of a space for young children; (2) reflections on the tools of design, with indications regarding both the distribution of space and the "soft qualities" (light, color, materials, smell, sound, microclimate), to provide tools of analysis and practical indications for both the interior and exterior design of infant-toddler centers and schools for young children; and (3) essays discussing the pedagogical and architecture/design issues that form the theoretical basis of the project, a product of studies carried out in the municipal preschools of Reggio Emilia and at Domus Academy as part of the joint research project. (EV)

Descriptors: Design Preferences; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Facilities Design; Physical Environment; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Centered Curriculum; Young Children


ED471907 PS030926
Title: Modeling Collaboration, In-Depth Projects, and Cognitive Discourse: A Reggio Emilia and Project Approach Course.
Author(s) Bullard, Julie; Bullock, Janis R.
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v4 n2 Fall 2002 Pages: 21
Publication Date: 2002
Notes: In: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Fall 2002; see PS 030 921.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: For full text: http://ecrp.illinois.edu/v4n2/bullard.html.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Montana
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2003

This article discusses two early childhood professors' experience of teaching a week-long collaborative course on Reggio Emilia, the Project Approach, and documentation. Principles of adult learning were used as a foundation to structure and organize the course, in which the early childhood education students applied their knowledge and skills to in-depth investigation of projects and documentation of learning. The article discusses issues of conflict that emerged among group members and reflects upon conditions needed to support intellectual discourse. Final reflections from the students and professors are highlighted. (Contains 18 references.) (Author)

Descriptors: Course Content; Course Descriptions; *Early Childhood Education; Higher Education; Reflective Teaching; Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Collaboration; *Teacher Education; *Teacher Education Programs
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED470898 PS030768
Title: What Happened After: Professional Development as a Catalyst for Program Change.
Author(s) Abramson, Shareen
Pages: 6
Publication Date: November 2000
Notes: In: Issues in Early Childhood Education: Curriculum, Teacher Education, & Dissemination of Information. Proceedings of the Lilian Katz Symposium ( Champaign, IL, November 5-7, 2000); see PS 030 740.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: For full text: http://ericeece.org/pubs/books/katzsym/abramson.pdf.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL2003

Exposure to the Reggio Emilia approach has led to greater awareness among early childhood educators of the importance of the arts, project work, and documentation. To be successful in integrating visual arts, teachers need to acquire the knowledge and skills for working with the arts and experience a wide range of art materials, methods, and processes guided by those expert in arts education. This paper discusses some of the principles of the Reggio Emilia approach and then describes professional development opportunities available at an early education center whose curriculum was influenced by the Reggio Emilia approach. These opportunities include the Hundred Languages of Children exhibition, the "Making Connections to Reggio Emilia and Beyond" educational institute, and observation of a model early childhood program. The paper then describes a three-day professional development institute intended to help teachers develop more background in the arts and projects through interactive sessions with artists. (Author)

Descriptors: Art Education; Curriculum Development; Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Principles; Inservice Teacher Education; Preschool Curriculum; Professional Development; Program Descriptions; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Teacher Workshops; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED470307 PS030692
Title: Unpacking Interpretation: De-Constructions from Australia, America and Reggio Emilia. Selected Conference Papers from the Unpacking Conference (6th, Sydney, Australia, July 16-17, 2001).
Author(s) Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.
Author Affiliation: Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). Inst. of Early Childhood.(BBB33102)
Pages: 98
Publication Date: July 2001
Notes: For other proceedings from this conference, see PS 030 690-691. Held at the University of New South Wales.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Availability: Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Tel: 61-2-9850-9851; Fax: 61-2-9850-9836; e-mail: afleet@iec.iec.mq.edu.au.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Proceedings (021)
Geographic Source: Australia; New South Wales
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL2003

This conference proceedings compiles a representative sample of the papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2001, one in a series of conferences examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on the interpretation of experiences and interactions in the life of early childhood settings. The papers are: (1) "Rejoicing in Subjectivity: An Overview Based on a Personal Interpretation of the Schools for Young Children in the City of Reggio Emilia" (Jan Milikan), presenting one educator's interpretations of the early childhood programs in Reggio Emilia and discussing children's potentials, projects, collaboration, and documentation; (2) "Constructing Ourselves: A Search for Interpretation in a Diverse United States Setting" (Shareen Abramson), stressing the positive and negative aspects of the tensions associated with experiencing ideals from Reggio Emilia in schools in California; (3) "Unpacking the Gaze: Shifting Lenses" (Janet Robertson), challenging the gaze practitioners use to see children and interpret theory, particularly with relation to work with toddlers; (4) "Diversity Silenced" (Alma Fleet), considering possible interpretations of diversity through Australian pedagogical documentation; and (5) "Dialogue with Reggio: What Are Some Possibilities for Primary Schools?" (Lesley Studans), offering a personal journey to assist people considering implications of the ideas from Reggio Emilia in formal schooling environments. Most papers contain references. (KB)

Descriptors: Cultural Differences; Cultural Pluralism; Educational Philosophy; *Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Foreign Countries; *Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; Toddlers
Identifiers: * Australia


ED470306 PS030691
Title: Unpacking Time: Minutes from Reggio Emilia, Australia and America. Conference Proceedings (5th, Sydney, Australia, July 8-9, 2000).
Author(s) Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.
Pages: 79
Publication Date: July 2000
Notes: For other proceedings from this conference, see PS 030 690-692.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Availability: Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, New South Wales 2109, Australia. Tel: 612-9850-9851; Fax: 612-9850-9836; e-mail: afleet@iec.iec.mq.edu.au.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Proceedings (021)
Geographic Source: Australia; New South Wales
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL2003

This conference proceedings compiles papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in July 2000, the fifth in a series examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on time and play in preschool education. Paper topics related to the history of early childhood education, contemporary early childhood education, and children's and adult's different conceptualizations of time. Following a summary of presentations and introductory remarks, the academic papers are: (1) "Play's the Thing: A Discursive Tour of Early Childhood Education in Four Acts" (Jan Jipson and Chelsea Bailey); (2) "Trapped in Time: Power, Time and Teaching" (Janet Robertson); (3) "Reconceptualising Time" (Kerrie Trebilcock); and (4) "Passing the Time: Book Ends for the Fifth Conference" (Alma Fleet). Each paper contains references. (KB)

Descriptors: *Childhood Attitudes; Children; Concept Formation; *Developmentally Appropriate Practices; Educational History; Educational Philosophy; *Educational Theories; Foreign Countries; Play; Postmodernism; Power Structure; Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Student Relationship; *Time; Time Factors (Learning)
Identifiers: Australia


ED470305 PS030690
Title: Unpacking Observation and Documentation: Experiences from Italy, Sweden and Australia. Conference Proceedings (4th, North Ryde, Australia, September 24-25, 1999).
Author(s) Robertson, Janet, Ed.; Fleet, Alma, Ed.
Author Affiliation: Macquarie Univ. , North Ryde ( Australia ). Inst. of Early Childhood.(BBB33102)
Pages: 65
Publication Date: September 1999
Notes: For other proceedings from this conference, see PS 030 691-692.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Availability: Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University , New South Wales 2109, Australia . Tel: 61-2-9850-9851; Fax: 61-2-9850-9836; e-mail: afleet@iec.iec.mq.edu.au.
Document Type: Collected works--Proceedings (021)
Geographic Source: Australia; New South Wales
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL2003

This conference proceedings compiles papers presented at the Institute of Early Childhood in September 1999, the fourth in a series examining the challenges which the schools of Reggio Emilia present the early childhood profession in Australia. The conference focused on the practices of observing children and documenting their thinking, the cornerstones of the Reggio Emilia approach to preschool education, as the Reggio Emilia approach is implemented in preschools in Australia, Sweden, and Italy. Following an introductory editorial, the academic papers included are: (1) "Early Childhood Pedagogy in a Changing World--A Practice-Oriented Research Project Troubling Dominant Discourses within the Field of Early Childhood Education" (Gunilla Dahlberg); (2) "Personalised Learning" (Alma Fleet); (3) "Three Different Constructions of the Child--The Childhood Landscapes" (Gunilla Dahlberg); and (4) "Observation and Documentation: 'Interpreting the Journey'" (Janet Robertson). Documentations of various projects at preschools are described. The final paper, "The Last Word" (Alma Fleet), distinguishes documentation and display, and highlights the challenges presented by the Italian educators of Reggio Emilia. Each academic paper contains references. (KB)

Descriptors: *Documentation; Educational Practices; Foreign Countries; *Observation; *Preschool Education; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Student Relationship; Young Children
Identifiers: Australia; Italy; Sweden


ED464766 PS030405
Title: Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia.
Author(s) Edwards, Carolyn Pope
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v4 n1 Spr 2002
Pages: 14
Publication Date: 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Nebraska
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2002

Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia are three progressive approaches to early childhood education that appear to be growing in influence in North America and to have many points in common. This article provides a brief comparative introduction of these models and highlights several key areas of similarity and contrast. All three approaches represent an explicit idealism and turn away from war and violence toward peace and reconstruction. They are built on coherent visions of how to improve human society by helping children realize their full potential as intelligent, creative, whole persons. In each approach, children are viewed as active authors of their own development, strongly influenced by natural, dynamic, self-righting forces within themselves, opening the way toward growth and learning. Teachers depend on carefully prepared, aesthetically pleasing environments that serve as a pedagogical tool and provide strong messages about the curriculum and about respect for children. Partnering with parents is highly valued in all three approaches, and children are evaluated by means other than traditional tests and grades. However, there are also many areas of difference, some at the level of principle and others at the level of strategy. Underlying the three approaches are variant views of the nature of young children's needs, interests, and modes of learning that lead to contrasts in the ways that teachers interact with children in the classroom, frame and structure learning experiences for children, and follow the children through observation/documentation. The article concludes with a discussion of the methods that researchers apply to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. (Contains 43 references.) (Author/HTH)

Descriptors: *Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Evaluation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Montessori Schools; *Waldorf Schools



ED464761 PS030400
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Spring 2002.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v4 n1 Spr 2002
Pages: 184
Publication Date: 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2002

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. Also included are articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. The first part of this issue of ECRP contains the following major articles on research and practice: (1) "Moving up the Grades: Relationship between Preschool Model and Later School Success" (Rebecca A. Marcon); (2) "The Role of Pretend Play in Children's Cognitive Development" (Doris Bergen); (3) "Learning To Guide Preschool Children's Mathematical Understanding: A Teacher's Professional Growth" (Anna Kirova and Ambika Bhargava); and (4) "Demographic Characteristics of Early Childhood Teachers and Structural Elements of Early Care and Education in the United States" (Gitanjali Saluja, Diane M. Early, and Richard M. Clifford). The second part presents the following observations and reflections: (1) "Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia" (Carolyn Pope Edwards). Two additional feature articles focus on child care and the Project Approach: (1) "Keeping Current in Child Care Research--Annotated Bibliography: An Update" (Deborah Ceglowski and Cara Bacigalupa); and (2) "Faces to the Window: The Construction Project" (Julia H. Berry & Elizabeth H. Allen). The journal concludes with a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (HTH)

Descriptors: *Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Attitudes; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Waldorf Schools


ED458048 PS029961
Title: Reggio Emilia: impulsor del dialogo y del cambio (Reggio Emilia: Catalyst for Change and Conversation). ERIC Digest.
Author(s) New, Rebecca S.
Pages: 4
Publication Date: November 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: Spanish
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2002

International perspectives on the care and education of preschool children that seem to be of greatest interest in the United States are those directly linked to prevailing concerns in American early childhood education. In this context, many early childhood specialists have explored the implications of Reggio Emilia's work for the theory, practice, and improvement of U.S. early childhood education. This Spanish-language digest outlines the history of Reggio Emilia's early childhood programs in order to provide insights to educators in the United States. It also highlights some of Reggio Emilia's less visible contributions, particularly its role in promoting discourse among communities of adults in the United States, as they debate the meaning and significance of their work with young children. Also discussed is Loris Malaguzzi's influence in bringing together Italian early childhood educators to share and debate the merits of their diverse approaches to creating environments for young children. The digest concludes by noting that while it is premature to make claims about the influence of Reggio Emilia's example on children's lives, there is little question that the field of early childhood education, including teacher education, has been altered by the exchanges taking place with Italian colleagues. As a result of these cross-cultural conversations, some educators have begun to use Reggio Emilia as illustrative of how nations might best respond to children's development and learning potentials--in particular, Reggio Emilia's emphasis on local processes of knowledge construction. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Educational Philosophy; Educational Practices; Foreign Countries; *International Communication; International Educational Exchange; Preschool Curriculum; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Young Children
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Italy (Reggio Emilia)



ED448928 PS029159
Title: Ani{SM}'s Rocket Ride: Internet Coach{R} for Early Learning. Teacher's Guide {with CD-ROM}.
Author(s) Brownell, Jeanine O'Nan
Pages: 74
Publication Date: January 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Non-print media (100)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2001

Inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach to early learning, this CD-ROM and Teacher's Guide invite young children on a journey with Ani, a friendly alien from another planet, to collect and learn about natural objects in seven different "learning centers." The CD-ROM program is designed to encourage creativity in science, art, and dramatic play and to teach children about using the Internet in a developmentally appropriate manner. The Teacher's Guide is presented in 9 chapters. Chapter 1 discusses how to use the CD-ROM, provides a philosophical overview of the Reggio Emilia Approach, and details how the CD-ROM experiences fit into High/Scope preschool key experiences. Chapters 2 through 8 provide 21 lesson plans for integrating the CD- ROM into everyday classroom routines and leading to classroom projects matching student interest related to the following learning centers: (1) water table; (2) Internet browser table; (3) light table; (4) drama center; (5) art center; (6) balance scale; and (7) e-mail center. Each lesson plan lists the learning objectives corresponding to the High/Scope preschool key experiences, and delineates instructions and materials necessary for a teacher-guided activity, a learning center activity, and extended activities for further exploration. Chapter 9 provides additional resources. (KB)

Descriptors: Art Activities; Class Activities; *Computer Uses in Education; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; Dramatic Play; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Technology; Electronic Mail; *Internet; Learning Activities; Optical Data Disks; *Preschool Curriculum; Reggio Emilia Approach; Science Activities; Teaching Guides; *Young Children
Identifiers: High Scope Model



ED454986 PS029617
Title: Experiencing Reggio Emilia: Implications for Pre-School Provision.
Author(s) Abbott, Lesley, Ed.; Nutbrown, Cathy, Ed.
Pages: 176
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Collected works--General (020)
Geographic Source: United Kingdom; England
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC2001

Noting that the approach to early childhood education of Reggio Emilia, Italy, has gained worldwide recognition as it challenges accepted approaches, this book reflects the impressions and experiences of the Reggio Emilia approach gained by a range of early childhood educators following a study visit to the region. The book focuses on key issues such as staffing, training, working with parents, play, learning, and the culture of early childhood and special educational needs. The chapters are: (1) "Experiencing Reggio Emilia" (Cathy Nutbrown and Lesley Abbott); (2) "Perceptions of Play--A Question of Priorities?" (Lesley Abbott); (3) "Listening and Learning" (Wendy Scott); (4) "Quality and the Role of the 'Pedagogista'" (Cynthia Knight); (5) "Sunniva's Extra Pocket--A Parent's Reflections" (Caroline Hunter); (6) "Sam's Invisible Extra Gear--A Parent's View" (Jenny Leask); (7) "Special Needs or Special Rights?" (Sylvia Philips); (8) "A Question of Inclusion" (Angela Nurse); (9) "Creating Places for Living and Learning" (John Bishop); (10) "'She's Back!' The Impact of My Visit to Reggio Emilia on a Group of 3- and 4-Year-Olds" (Christine Parker); (11) "Journeying above the 'Sea of Fog': Reflections on Personal Professional Development Inspired by Reggio" (Robin Duckett); (12) "A Journey into Reality" (Kath Hirst); (13) "Creating a Palette of Opportunities: Situations for Learning in the Early Years" (Cathy Nutbrown); (14) "The Otherness of Reggio" (Peter Moss); and (15) "Questions and Challenges--Continuing the Dialogue" (Lesley Abbott and Cathy Nutbrown). (KB)

Descriptors: Educational Practices; Inclusive Schools; Learning; Mother Attitudes; Parent School Relationship; *Play; *Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; Professional Development; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Special Education; Special Needs Students; *Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Role



ED453002 PS029513
Title: Reflections and Impressions from Reggio Emilia: "It's Not about Art!"
Author(s) Hertzog, Nancy B.
Pages: 10
Publication Date: 2001
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2001

This article discusses an early childhood program administrator's reflections on her visit to the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. The following six themes are discussed: (1) teachers' respect for each child; (2) teachers' emphasis on relationships; (3) the importance of art as the medium chosen to represent children's thinking; (4) the critical role of communication; (5) the relaxed pace in the schools; and (6) the teachers' different roles. The article concludes with ideas and questions inspired by the visit that the administrator would like to share with colleagues in a gifted education environment. (Author)

Descriptors: Art Activities; Classroom Communication; Classroom Environment; Gifted; *Preschool Education; *Program Descriptions; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Special
Education; Student Centered Curriculum; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: *Italy (Reggio Emilia); Program Characteristics



ED453001 PS029512
Title: Reactions to Visiting the Infant-Toddler and Preschool Centers in Reggio Emilia, Italy.
Author(s) Bennett, Tess
Pages: 9
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2001

This article discusses the reflections of an early childhood special education professional on her visit to the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. After describing the activities observed, the schools' philosophy, and the schools' environments, the paper discusses how the schools work with children with "special rights" (i.e., special needs). The paper concludes with observations on the role of parents and the community, and lessons learned from the trip. (Author)

Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Disabilities; Educational Philosophy; Experiential Learning; *Inclusive Schools; Individual Needs; Parent School Relationship; Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; *Program Descriptions; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Regular and Special Education Relationship; School Community Relationship; Special Education; Student Centered Curriculum; Toddlers
Identifiers: *Italy (Reggio Emilia); Program Characteristics



ED452996 PS029507
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, 2001.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Pages: 162
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2001

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. Also included are articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. The first part of this issue of ECRP contains the following major articles on research and practice: (1) "A Trip to the Zoo: Children's Words and Photographs" (Darlene DeMarie); (2) "Locatives and Visuomotor Skills in the Kindergarten Year" (Deborah Marr, Mary-Margaret Windsor, and Sharon Cermak); and (3) "Teachers' Beliefs and Teaching Beliefs" (James Raths). The second part presents the following observations and reflections: (1) "Clouds Come from New Hampshire": Confronting the Challenge of Philosophical Change in Early Childhood Programs" (Ellen P. Dodge, Barbara N. Dulik, and John A Kulhanek); (2) "Reactions to Visiting the Infant-Toddler and Preschool Centers in Reggio Emilia, Italy" (Tess Bennett); and (3) "Reflections and Impressions from Reggio Emilia: 'It's Not about Art!'" (Nancy B. Herzog). An additional feature article focuses on the Project Approach, "The Combine Project: An Experience in a Dual-Language Classroom" (Rebecca Wilson). The journal concludes with a recent ERIC database search on the Reggio Emilia Approach, and a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (HTH)

Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; Electronic Journals; Kindergarten Children; *Preschool Curriculum; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Attitudes; Teaching
Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Visual Motor Functioning



ED448859 PS029070
Title: Bambini: The Italian Approach to Infant/Toddler Care. Early Childhood Education Series.
Author(s) Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope, Ed.
Pages: 256
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Collected works--General (020)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Vermont
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2001

This book describes Italian experiences in providing early care and education, focusing on four cities--Milan, Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Pistoia--with outstanding city-run systems designed to serve children under 3 and their families. The book considers specific strategies or practices used, and interprets the significance of the Italian innovations for American early childhood practice. Following an introduction on the historical context of Italian early care and questions addressed by the book, the chapters are: (1) "Infant Care in the United States and How the Italian Experience Can Help" (J. Ronald Lally); (2) "Infant-Toddler Centers in Italy Today: Tradition and Innovation" (Susanna Mantovani); (3) "Change in Italian National Policy for Children 0-3 Years Old and Their Families: Advocacy and Responsibility" (Patrizia Ghedini); (4) "Reggio Emilia: The Image of the Child and the Child's Environment as a Fundamental Principle" (Carlina Rinaldi); (5) "Reggio Emilia: Experiencing Life in an Infant-Toddler Center. Interview with Cristina Bondavalli" (Lella Gandini); (6) "Milan: Meeting New Kinds of Family Needs" (Susanna Mantovani); (7) "Parma: Supporting the Work of Teachers through Professional Development, Organization, and Administrative Support" (Nice Terzi and Marialuisa Cantarelli); (8) "Pistoia: Creating a Dynamic, Open System To Serve Children, Families, and Community" (Annalia Galardini and Donatella Giovannini); (9) "'Inserimento': A Strategy for Delicately Beginning Relationships and Communications" (Chiara Bove); (10) "Two Reflections about Documentation" (Lella Gandini and Jeanne Goldhaber); (11) "Traces of Childhood: A Child's Diary" (Donatella Giovannini); (12) "Inclusion: Dario's Story" (Gabri Magrini and Lella Gandini); (13) "Knowing and Learning in an Educational Context: A Study in the Infant-Toddler Centers of the City of Pistoia" (Tullia Musatti and Susanna Mayer); (14) "Research as a Partnership for Learning Together: Studying the Growth of Relationships Inside the Nido" (Carolyn Pope Edwards and Lella Gandini); (15) "'Quando c'e' Figli' (When There Are Children): Observations on Italian Early Childhood" (Rebecca S. New); and (16) "Conclusions for Now, Questions and Directions for the Future" (Carolyn Pope Edwards and Lella Gandini). Most chapters contain references. (KB)

Descriptors: Caregiver Child Relationship; *Day Care; Delivery Systems; Documentation; Family School Relationship; Foreign Countries; Inclusive Schools; *Infant Care; *Infants; Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; Professional Development; Program Descriptions; Public Policy; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Evaluation; Teacher Administrator Relationship; *Toddlers
Identifiers: Historical Background; *Italy; Parent Caregiver Relationship; Special Needs Children; United States



ED447971 PS029100
Title: Reggio Emilia: Catalyst for Change and Conversation. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) New, Rebecca S.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2001

International perspectives on the care and education of preschool children that seem to be of greatest interest in the United States are those directly linked to prevailing concerns in American early childhood education. In this context, many early childhood specialists have explored the implications of Reggio Emilia's work for the theory, practice, and improvement of U.S. early childhood education. This digest outlines the history of Reggio Emilia's early childhood programs in order to provide insights to educators in the United States; the digest highlights some of Reggio Emilia's less visible contributions, particularly its role in promoting discourse among communities of adults in the United States, as they debate the meaning and significance of their work with young children. Also discussed is Loris Malaguzzi's influence in bringing together Italian early childhood educators to share and debate the merits of their diverse approaches to creating environments for young children. The digest concludes by noting that while it is premature to make claims about the influence of Reggio Emilia's example on children's lives, there is little question that the field of early childhood education, including teacher education, has been altered by the exchanges taking place with Italian colleagues. As a result of these cross-cultural conversations, some educators have begun to use Reggio Emilia as illustrative of how nations might best respond to children's development and learning potentials--in particular, Reggio Emilia's emphasis on local processes of knowledge construction. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Educational Philosophy; Educational Practices; Foreign Countries; *International Communication; International Educational Exchange; Preschool Curriculum; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Young Children
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Italy (Reggio Emilia)


ED443597 PS028768
Title: The Role of Curriculum Models in Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Goffin, Stacie G.
Author Affiliation: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education,
Champaign, IL.(BBB34257)
Pages: 3
Publication Date: August 2000
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington,
DC. (EDD00036)
Contract No: ED-99-CO-0020
Report No: EDO-PS-00-8
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2001

The term curriculum model refers to a conceptual framework and organizational structure for decision making about educational priorities, administrative policies, instructional methods, and evaluation criteria. This digest discusses the role of curriculum models in early childhood education. Following a discussion of the origin of early childhood education curriculum models, the digest presents an overview of curriculum models, noting that theories of child development have served as the foundation for curriculum model development. The digest notes that comparisons of models focus on the extent the programs experienced by children differ from each other and on whether some programs are better than others in producing desired outcomes. The digest touches on the findings of comparative evaluations, noting that the research suggests that early childhood curriculum models do affect child outcomes and that there may be potentially negative consequences associated with highly structured, academic preschool programs. The digest concludes with a discussion of whether curriculum models improve program quality or whether they lower expectations for early childhood educators and diminish the professional responsibilities of early childhood teachers. (LPP)

Descriptors: Child Development; *Curriculum Design; Curriculum Development; *Curriculum Evaluation; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; Educational Quality; *Models; *Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; Reggio Emilia Approach
Identifiers: ERIC Digests



ED456892 PS028457
Title: Engaging Children's Minds: The Project Approach. Second Edition.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 215
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2002

Noting that much has happened in the field of early childhood education during the 10 years since publication of the first edition of "The Project Approach," this new edition re-introduces the project approach and suggests applications and examples of the approach in action. Notable additions to this second edition include: (1) two new chapters addressing issues in the selection of project topics and children's drawing and its role in project work; (2) results of 10 years of research and development in the field of early education curriculum and teaching methods in support of project work; and (3) analysis of the Reggio Emilia approach to early education. Chapters are: (1) "Introduction to the Project Approach," outlining the aims and benefits of including project work; (2) "Principles of Practice in the Early Years," summarizing relevant research and offering principles of practice in support of project work; (3) "Project Work in Action," illustrating how projects usually proceed; (4) "Phases and Features of the Project Approach," outlining principal features of the approach that underlie the projects of the previous chapter; (5) "Issues in Selecting Topics for Projects," addressing determining if a topic is appropriate or of sufficient substance and offering criteria; (6) "Teacher Planning," describing some techniques for initial project planning; (7) "Phase I: Getting Projects Started," addressing ways of enlisting children's interest and participation in launching a project; (8) "Phase II: Projects in Progress," discussing preparations for field work and organizing the data gathered; (9) "Phase III: Concluding Projects," discussing various approaches to culminating and evaluating a project; (10) "Drawing in the Context of a Project," addressing the contribution of drawing, different kinds of drawing, and teaching strategies to the efficacy of project work; and (11) "The Project Approach in Perspective," discussing the part of this approach in a balanced curriculum. The book's nine appendices include guidelines for projects on houses and seedpods, instructions for making a book, and several project webs. (Contains 149 references.) (SD)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Child Development; Class Activities; Early Childhood Education; Instructional Innovation; *Learning Activities; Parent Participation; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Motivation; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; *Young Children
Identifiers: *Childrens Drawings; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Task Engagement



ED451087 SO032094
Title: Eye to Eye: An Artist/Teacher and Young Children--A Case Study.
Author(s) Stevenson, Christine
Pages: 9
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: Australia; New South Wales
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2001

This case study of artist/researcher Ursula Kolbe was undertaken in 1998 to extend understanding of the complexity of the process of teaching and learning in respect to children's interactions with visual arts materials. The following questions prompted the research: how does a teacher who is also an artist work with young children? and does a background in visual arts influence a teacher's orientation toward children's graphic and three-dimensional work in the way that teacher interacts with children? Data were collected by observation of Kolbe's interactions with children aged 20 months to 6 years at the Institute of Early Childhood, a school at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. Coding patterns of interaction that appeared in transcripts from the audiotaped interactions enabled the researcher to identify the recurrent themes of Kolbe's practice. Interviews with Kolbe allowed perspectives, rationale, and approaches to be clarified. Identification of recurrent themes resulted in the selection of four key principles: (1) furthering skills in visual discrimination and enhancing the aesthetic qualities in children's work; (2) ensuring that physical conditions support exploration; (3) recognizing and acknowledging children's conceptual interests in graphic and three-dimensional work; and (4) extending children's work in visual education. This case study provides an insight into the way an Australian teacher, with a background in the visual arts and a strong interest in the Reggio Emilia approach, works with young children. (Contains 13 references.) (BT)

Descriptors: *Art Teachers; *Artists; *Childrens Art; Classroom Research; *Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; Foreign Countries; Naturalistic Observation; Reggio Emilia Approach; *Visual Arts; Young Children
Identifiers: Australia; MacQuarie University (Australia); Teaching Research; Thematic Analysis



ED442588 PS028690
Title: Reggio Tutta: A Guide to the City by the Children.
Author(s) Davoli, Mara, Ed.; Ferri, Gino, Ed.
Pages: 152
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Collected works--General (020); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: Italy
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC2000

Three- to six-year-old children in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, worked on a project called "The City: Images, Ideas, and Theories," in which teachers investigated the children's ideas, hypotheses, and theories about cities in general and their own city in particular. Children's knowledge about the city was surveyed in conversation. Based on this project, the children were asked to be the interpreters and describers of their own city of Reggio Emilia by preparing a guide to the city. This book presents that guide. The initial section of the book introduces the city of Reggio Emilia, offers some thoughts on the nature of cities and on how children might help us understand cities, and provides an overview of the children's process of making the guide. The second and longest section of the book presents the children's guide in their words and pictures and in photographs of scenes from Reggio Emilia. A series of historical notes on some of the famous landmarks of the city is presented in the book's third section. The fourth section consists of a collection of essays by: (1) Sandra Piccinini, on children's wisdom; (2) Jerome Bruner, on the great value of Reggio Emilia; (3) Sergio Spaggiari, on how we might learn from children's understanding of the city; (4) Rolando Baldini and Vania Vecchi, on the way the children's work is presented in the guide; (5) Tullio Zini, on children's views of the architecture and urban design of the city; (6) Marco Belpoliti, on some conditions of the modern city; and (7) Ermanno Cavazzoni, on some of the characteristics of Reggio Emilia. The fifth section explains how the research in the children's project was conducted. (BC)

Descriptors: Architecture; *Childhood Attitudes; Childhood Interests; Childrens Art; Childrens Writing; Foreign Countries; *Municipalities; *Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Reggio Emilia Approach; *Urban Culture; *Urban Improvement; Urban Planning; Urban Problems
Identifiers: *Italy (Reggio Emilia)



ED439853 PS028525
Title: Dynamic Aims: The Use of Long-Term Projects in Early Childhood Classrooms in Light of Dewey's Educational Philosophy.
Author(s) Glassman, Michael; Whaley, Kimberlee
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Ohio
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000

This paper explores the use of the long-term project as an educational tool in early childhood classrooms. In particular, it focuses on the way in which long-term projects can reflect John Dewey's notion of the "dynamic aim" as a primary force in education. In "Democracy and Education," Dewey suggests that when teaching is dominated by specific goals, the educational process becomes static, and there is an unnatural separation between the activity the student engages in to reach the goal and the goal itself. Thus, the activity has no educational purpose beyond reaching this goal and does not teach the student how to learn beyond this very specific situation. Dewey suggests instead that education be based on a series of dynamic aims. The aims of the activity emerge from the activity itself, and they serve only as temporary beacons for the activity. As soon as an aim is achieved, that achievement creates activity leading to another aim. Long-term projects can be perfect vehicles for this type of approach to education. In particular, the paper focuses on the Reggio Emilia approach to long-term projects, which includes some important attributes such as documentation and "progettazione" (i.e., a discussion of the possible directions that the project might take based on observations of the children and past experience). The paper concludes with examples of long-term projects partially based on the Reggio Emilia approach from two American classrooms-- one infant/toddler and one preschool. (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Discovery Learning; Educational Objectives; Educational Philosophy; Experiential Learning; Preschool Education; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Centered Curriculum; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods; *Young Children
Identifiers: *Dewey (John); *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED456890 PS028204
Title: Discovering Reggio Emilia: Building Connections between Learning and Art.
Author(s) Sassalos, Melina C.
Pages: 23
Publication Date: December 08, 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2002

Noting that the approach to early childhood education in the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy incorporates art as a learning tool, this paper describes the Reggio Emilia approach and discusses ways for American educators to apply the philosophies of the Reggio Emilia schools. The paper describes the founding of the schools in Reggio Emilia, by Loris Malaguzzi, and summarizes the basis for the approach. Art is described as the gateway to all learning processes; the use of art materials in the Reggio Emilia schools is also detailed. The following elements are then described as important to the success of the approach: (1) emphasis on project work; (2) importance of classroom environment; (3) importance of art as serious work; (4) providing a variety of materials; (5) philosophy of creativity; (6) the adult-child relationship; (7) teacher/staff support systems; and (8) evidence of learning through art. The paper next describes the integration of the Reggio Emilia approach to incorporate each of the above elements in an art program for kindergarten through fifth grade in a public school in the Bronx, New York. The paper concludes by noting that there are many ideas that may be taken from the schools of Reggio Emilia. (Contains 16 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: *Art Education; *Early Childhood Education; Foreign Countries; Program Descriptions; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Student Centered Curriculum; Student
Projects
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia)



ED429685 PS027441
Title: The Hundred Languages of Children Exhibition: A Unique Early Childhood Education Professional Development Program. Final Evaluation Report (September 15 to December 15, 1998).
Author(s) Abramson, Shareen; Huggins, Joyce M.
Pages: 119
Publication Date: February 25, 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1999

The "Exhibition of the Hundred Languages of Children" (HLC) was organized in the early 1980s by the early childhood schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy to promote the study of their educational methods and to reveal the potential of young children for learning and creative expression. This report details an evaluation of the exhibition and continuing education program held during the exhibition in 1998 at California State University in Fresno, California, "Making Connections to Reggio Emilia and Beyond: An Educational Institute." The institute consisted of four weekend courses taught by leading authorities in early childhood education. Attendees were also able to observe in the Huggins Center, a model training, demonstration, and research center in early childhood education using an exemplary curriculum influenced by the study of the Reggio Approach. The evaluation findings indicated that the HLC exhibition and the program generated an intense and a positive public response throughout the state. Feedback on the exhibit, institute, and tours was exceptionally positive and enthusiastic. The report notes that the program was successful because it provided early childhood education (ECE) training aligned to the mission and goals for ECE in the county offices of education, school districts, and other early childhood education agencies and organizations. The resulting collaboration provided needed financial resources, assisted in publicity efforts, encouraged greater participation of those interested in ECE, and led to greater public awareness of the importance and benefits of ECE. Included in the report are numerous photographs from the exhibit and institute, attendee information, and media information related to the event. (KB)

Descriptors: *Continuing Education; Early Childhood Education; *Faculty Development; *Preschool Teachers; Program Evaluation; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED450870 PS028473
Title: Seeing, Making, Doing: Creative Development in Early Years Settings. Early Education Support Series.
Author(s) Orley, Ray
Pages: 51
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: United Kingdom; Scotland
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2001

Part of a series for early years teachers in Scotland, this guide focuses on ways to provide creative opportunities that support and enhance child development. The guide discusses how to respect children's creativity while observing and developing their skills and suggests practical and creative alternatives to the mass production of identical pieces of work in early years centers and schools. The guide examines the role of creative play and the arts in early learning, helps staff gain confidence in their own creative activities, suggests ways of planning activities, and offers suggestions for arranging the environment. Further, the guide shows how young children and staff can benefit from contacts with the arts and their work, and explains how to arrange an artist-in-residence project at an early years center or school. The guide also offers advice in how to make the most of a visit to an art gallery, theater, or sculpture park and points out where to start in funding these projects. Case studies and photographs of successful creative projects are interspersed throughout the guide to illustrate how a variety of organizations have used the suggestions with young children. The guide concludes with lists of publishers specializing in materials for children, a reference list, and contact information for relevant groups and organizations. Contains a 26-item list of sources for further reading. (KB)

Descriptors: *Art Education; *Childrens Art; *Creative Development; *Creativity; Cultural Enrichment; Foreign Countries; Parent Participation; *Play; Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; Reggio Emilia Approach; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Scotland



ED450869 PS028472
Title: The Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Years Education. Early Education Support Series.
Author(s) Valentine, Marianne
Pages: 37
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: United Kingdom; Scotland
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2001

Noting that the approach to early childhood education from the northern Italian town of Reggio Emilia has become renowned worldwide, this report explains the approach and explores the possible translation or adaptation of aspects of this pedagogical approach to Scotland. Following an introduction, the report is presented in three parts. Part 1 provides information on the organization of the system of preschools and infant-toddler centers in Reggio Emilia and compares it to the British system. Part 2 describes the Reggio Emilia approach, focusing on the image of the child; the role of expressive arts in preschool; "progettazione" (loosely, the relationship between teacher and child), including the teacher's role in documenting learning; community and parent-school relationships; the educational environment; and teachers as learners. Part 3 discusses how the Scottish early years education system might adapt parts of the Reggio Emilia approach for its use. This part begins with reflections on current practice in Scotland and then discusses how the following issues integral to the Reggio approach are of particular interest to the Scottish system: physical features of the school environment, the use of time, collaboration, partnerships with parents, curriculum, the role of the adult, documentation, and initial teacher training and professional development. This part also delineates questions for reflection by early childhood professionals. Includes a 26-item bibliography. (KB)

Descriptors: Constructivism (Learning); Educational Environment; Educational Philosophy; *Educational Practices; Foreign Countries; Parent School Relationship; Preschool Children; *Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; Program Descriptions; *Reggio Emilia Approach; School Community Relationship; Student Centered Curriculum; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Program Characteristics; Scotland; Social Constructivism



ED442664 SE063793
Title: Early Childhood Science: Adopting the Reggio Emilia Approach.
Author(s) Desouza, Josephine M. Shireen
Pages: 10
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Indiana
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC2000

This paper describes the the Reggio Emilia Approach and recommends adopting the curriculum for teaching science in U.S. schools. The underlying philosophy of this approach is its uniqueness within the constructivist paradigm and its potential as an exemplary early childhood program that can be adapted to teach young children science. The educators and parents at Reggio, through a strong commitment and cooperation, have developed an excellent program over the years that has been exemplary not only for educators in Italy and Europe, but has also made a tremendous impact on early childhood education in the United States. The Reggio school uses an integrated curriculum that combines cognitive/symbolic processes in learning. (YDS)

Descriptors: Community Role; *Constructivism (Learning); Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Inservice Teacher Education; Integrated Curriculum; Learning Processes; Parents; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Science Education; Teachers
Identifiers: Dewey (John); Italy; Piaget (Jean); Vygotsky (Lev S)



ED435501 PS028125
Title: What Should Children Learn? Making Choices and Taking Chances.
Author(s) New, Rebecca S.
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v1 n2 Fall 1999
Pages: 15
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120); Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Hampshire
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2000

The basic premise of this paper is that decisions about children and their early educational experiences are culturally situated and, by definition, will reflect varying interpretations of appropriate educational aims and strategies. Drawing upon three decades of experience in the Italian culture as well as preliminary findings from a collaborative research project with several Italian communities (including Milan, Trento, Reggio Emilia, Parma, and San Miniato), the paper emphasizes the necessity and validity of diverse interpretations of early childhood programs, the relationship between goals for children and societal expectations for adults, and the importance of adult relationships (among parents, teachers, and community members) to the negotiation of educational goals for children growing up in a pluralistic democratic society. (Author)

Descriptors: *Cultural Influences; *Educational Objectives; Family School Relationship; Foreign Countries; *Interpersonal Relationship; Parent Student Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Partnerships in Education; *Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; Public Policy; Reggio Emilia Approach; School Community Relationship; Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: Adult Child Relationship; *Italy



ED428890 PS027474
Title: Editing: Permission To Start Wrong.
Author(s) Clemens, Sydney Gurewitz
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v1 n1 Spr 1999
Pages: 11
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1999

This article asserts that young children and their teachers benefit when they learn a work style that includes successive approximations before reaching a final product. These successive attempts can be thought of as editing, and the article describes how the Reggio Emilia approach offers patterns to help children achieve this style of work. The article discusses how a drawing done by a group of children offers an example of a task that can incorporate editing--through revisiting of what has been drawn, translation into other media or "languages," and development of consensus among the children on how to improve it. The article concludes that teachers should strive to free children from the burden of instant perfectionism so that they can instead develop skills in investigation, communication, and creativity. Contains 11 references. (Author/EV)

Descriptors: Childhood Needs; Early Childhood Education; *Editing; Instructional Innovation; Learning Processes; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED432362 PS027532
Title: Unpacking Educational Environments: Visions from Reggio Emilia, Australia, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference (Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, May 16, 1998).
Author(s) Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.
Pages: 37
Publication Date: May 16, 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--General (020)
Geographic Source: Australia; New South Wales
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC1999

These four early childhood education conference papers discuss ideas and themes to create healthy educational environments inspired by preschool sites in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The first paper, "Environmental Visions: Daisies and the Possible" (Alma Fleet and Janet Robertson), discusses the influences of Reggio Emilia. The paper notes how the environment of a center should fit its image of children: as learners and researchers; in constant relationship with their surroundings; as being capable of long investigation of media; as being able to solve important problems; as social beings; as entitled to beauty; as welcome; and as engaged in learning. The second paper, "Melbourne via Reggio Emilia" (Kerrie Trebilcock), concerns the culture of a private early childhood center in Melbourne, Australia. The paper notes how the center's culture was presented through its physical environment such as interior and exterior architecture and design, and suggests that the design of early childhood centers should: create a conducive environment for learning; provide children with a sense of achievement and ownership in the environment; and allow children a degree of freedom. The third paper, "Packing the Suitcase: What To Pack?" (Margo Hobba and Tony Hobba), presents the authors' experiences designing an early child care center in Geelong, Australia, inspired by their Reggio Emilia experience. The fourth paper, also titled "Melbourne via Reggio Emilia" ( Diane Bourke), concerns refurbishment of the Junior School of Melbourne Girls Grammar in Australia. Includes a profile of conference speakers. (LBT)

Descriptors: Classroom Design; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Environment; *Educational Facilities Design; Foreign Countries; Program Design; Young Children
Identifiers: Australia (Melbourne); Early Childhood Centers; *Italy (Reggio Emilia); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED419808 SP037974
Title: The School of Transcendence.
Author(s) O'Hara, Hunter
Pages: 22
Publication Date: February 27, 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--General (140); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1998

This paper discusses the nature of a theoretical school of transcendence as conceived by participants in a graduate course on the topic of transcendence in teacher-learner relationships. Transcendent teacher-learner relationships are spontaneously occurring ones in which teacher and learner transcend their traditional interactive roles. During the encounter, a turning point occurs for one or both participants, and life goals are altered or changed. The school of transcendence is designed to support transcendent pedagogy and interpersonal relationships. A study, comprised of students enrolled in the early childhood master's degree program at Towson University (Maryland), was conducted in which students were asked to theorize how a school characterized by trancendence might look and feel. Based on data collected, this paper contrasts the school of transcendence with the traditional school in terms of: philosophy and approach to creating learning encounters; curricula; planning and scheduling, assessment and evaluation; physical space; and school community interpersonal relationships. The paper discusses the traditional school as a place of violence, contrasting it with the safe environment of the school of transcendence, and it explains governance in the school of transcendence. Finally, the paper identifies transcendence-oriented approaches currently implemented in Reggio Emilia schools and presents a series of metaphors for the school of transcendence to help synthesize the data presented. (Contains 19 references.) (SM)

Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Educational Methods; Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; *Nontraditional Education; School Community Relationship; Students; *Teacher Student Relationship; Teachers; Violence
Identifiers: Reggio Emilia Approach; *Transcendence



ED425855 PS027226
Title: The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach--Advanced Reflections. Second Edition.
Author(s) Edwards, Carolyn, Ed.; Gandini, Lella, Ed.; Forman, George, Ed.
Pages: 500
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF2 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--General (020); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY1999

This collection of essays and interviews documents the unique approach to early childhood education taken by schools in the Reggio Emilia region of Italy. Howard Gardner and David Hawkins provide reflections in chapters that begin the book. The book is then divided into four major parts. Part I includes an introduction by Carolyn Edwards and others, and the essay "What Can We Learn from Reggio Emilia?" (Katz). Part II contains six interviews conducted by Lella Gandini with Reggio Emilia educators: "History, Ideas, and Basic Philosophy," with Loris Malaguzzi; "The Community-Teacher Partnership in the Governance of the Schools," with Sergio Spaggiari; "Projected Curriculum Constructed through Documentation--'Progettazione,'" with Carlina Rinaldi; "The Role of the 'Pedagogista,'" with Tiziana Filippini; "The Role of the 'Atelierista,'" with Vea Vecchi; and "The Voice of Parents," with Gianna Fontanesi and others. Part III examines the theory and practice of the Reggio Emilia approach through seven essays: "Educational and Caring Spaces" (Gandini); "Partner, Nurturer, and Guide: The Role of the Teacher" (Edwards); "Children with 'Special Rights' in the Preprimary Schools and Infant-Toddler Centers of Reggio Emilia" (Smith); "Curriculum Development in Reggio Emilia: A Long-Term Curriculum Project about Dinosaurs" (Rankin); "Negotiated Learning through Design, Documentation, and Discourse" (Forman and Fyfe); "Theory and Praxis in Reggio Emilia: They Know What They Are Doing, and Why" (New); and "Poppies and the Dance of World Making" (Kaufman). Part IV examines the extension of the Reggio Emilia approach to American classrooms through eight essays: "The Child in Community: Constraints from the Early Childhood Lore" (Nimmo); "Existing Frameworks and New Ideas from Our Reggio Emilia Experience: Learning at a Lab School with 2- to 4-Year-Old Children" (Kantor and Whaley); (3) "Bridge to Another Culture: The Journey of the Model Early Learning Center" (Lewin and others); "The City in the Snow: Applying the Multisymbolic Approach in Massachusetts" (Forman and others); "Looking in the Mirror: A Reflection of Reggio Practice in Winnetka" (Tarini and White); "The Project Approach Framework for Teacher Education: A Case for Collaborative Learning and Reflective Practice" (Moran); "Adapting the Reggio Emilia Approach: Becoming Reference Points for Study and Practice" (Fyfe and others); and "Reconsidering Early Childhood Education in the United States: Reflections from Our Encounters with Reggio Emilia" (Phillips and Bredekamp). The book concludes with reflections by Edwards, Gandini, and Forman; a glossary of terms used by Reggio Emilia educators; and a list of published resources about the Reggio Emilia approach. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Art Education; Community Role; Creative Development; *Curriculum Development; Educational Innovation; Educational Theories; Foreign Countries; *Preschool Children; Preschool Education; Progressive Education; Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Italy (Reggio Emilia); *Reggio Emilia Approach; United States



ED425022 PS027208
Title: ERIC/EECE Newsletter. 1994-1998.
Author(s) Cesarone, Bernard, Ed.; Preece, Laurel, Ed.
Source: ERIC/EECE Newsletter, v6 n1-v10 n2 Mar 1994-1998
Pages: 63
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1999

This document consists of 10 issues (created over 5 years) of the newsletter of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE). Each issue contains a feature article and one or more short articles on topics related to early childhood education, calls for papers, announcements about Internet resources, news items about and lists of publications from ERIC/EECE, or articles about child care from the Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Child Care. The feature articles discuss: (1) the project approach; (2) risks of rewards for children; (3) adapting ideas from the Reggio Emilia (Italy) approach to preschool education in the United States; (4) fostering resilience in children; (5) resolving differences between teachers and parents; (6) male involvement in early childhood programs; (7) applying child development knowledge; (8) implications of research for practice; (9) television violence; and (10) selecting topics for project work. Articles related to child care concern establishing family-centered child care programs, improving the quality and availability of child care, inclusion, quality in child care, and intergenerational child care. Additional short articles address topics of: (1) violence and young children; (2) integrated curriculum; (3) Hispanic parent involvement in ECE; (4) documentation and quality in ECE; (5) transitions to middle school; and (6) reports from a kindergarten study. (BC)

Descriptors: *Child Development; *Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Quality; Fathers; Internet; Newsletters; Parent Participation; Research and Development; Resilience (Personality); Rewards; Television Viewing; Theory Practice Relationship; *Violence
Identifiers: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary Early Child Educ; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach



ED421217 PS026639
Title: Windows on Learning: Documenting Young Children's Work. Early Childhood Education Series.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris; Beneke, Sallee; Steinheimer, Kathy
Pages: 203
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC1998

This book grew out of the experiences of three teachers as they learned to document young children's work in their respective schools. Part I of this book enables readers to learn about documentation. Chapter 1 provides the rationale for the study of documentation, and chapter 2 explains the windows framework that guided the teachers in thinking about documentation. Chapter 3 presents the web of documentation types. Chapters 4-8 provide an in-depth exploration of the variety of documentation types, with samples collected by the teachers. The children's work and teacher notes illustrate what children learned and how they developed through use of the project approach. Part II of the book explores learning how to document children's work. Chapters 9-11 explain how to collect, organize, and share documentation with children, other teachers, parents, and the community. Throughout the book and especially in chapter 10, teacher reflections illustrate how the teachers used documentation to inform teaching and to make decisions. Chapter 11 discusses how documentation as described in this book relates to recommendations and requirements for assessment. Part III of the book explores the documentation of one project, "Our Mail Project," which was completed by a class of 3- and 4-year-olds over a 6-week period. The teacher's documentation and the children's documentation show the progress of the project as it grew, expanded, and concluded. The complete documentation of this project illustrates how a project develops, how documentation can be integrated into all areas of development, how documentation informs teaching, and how documentation enables others to see how much learning took place in the classroom. (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: Active Learning; *Classroom Techniques; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; Discovery Learning; *Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Experiential Learning; Group Activities; Instructional Innovation; Learning Activities; Portfolios (Background Materials); Problem Solving; Reflective Teaching; Student Evaluation; *Student Projects; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach; Self Reflection; Webbing (Thematic)



ED422052 PS025707
Title: The Early Years: Embracing the Challenges. 1997 Early Years of Schooling Conference Proceedings (Melbourne, Australia, July 20-21, 1997).
Pages: 97
Publication Date: July 1997
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Proceedings (021)
Geographic Source: Australia; Victoria
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN1999

These conference proceedings comprise 19 papers and the plenary session presented at the Early Years Schooling Conference held in Melbourne, Australia. The plenary session was "A Developmental Approach to Teaching Young Children" conducted by Lilian Katz. The keynote addresses and breakout sessions were: (1) "Developmental Learning: How to Learn" (Heard, Stevens and Biddle); (2) "More Patterns in Poetry" (Hinchcliffe); (3) "Challenges of Understanding Children's Thinking" (Robbins); (4) "Impact of the Early Literacy Research Project" (Potter); (5) "Literacy Intervention P-2: Building a Solid Foundation" (Stanley); (6) "Teaching Readers in the Classroom" (Department of Education); (7) "Climbing the Language Mountain" (Crystal); (8) "Reggio Emelia in the Victorian Classroom" (Doig and Larkins); (9) "Towards a Love of Learning: Challenging our Preschool Children" (Margetts); (10) "Challenging All Children in a Mixed Ability Classroom" (Nelson and Fyfe); (11) "Education and Enlightenment: Koorie Education, from Birth and Beyond" (Department of Education); (12) "Parents Supporting Readers" (Department of Education); (13) "Adding Growth Rings: Additional Insights into the Art of Teaching Writing" (Bolton); (14) "Promoting the Growth of Mathematical Thinking in Young Children" (Mulligan); (15) "Early Years Can Tackle the Issues for Later Years" (McNicol); (16) "Windows and Doors: Computers in Early Literacy Programs' (Graham and Oxenbould); (17) "Children Learning to Write in Preschool" (Reynolds); (18) "Implementing the CSF through Play Sessions" (Wilson); and (19) "Implementing a Structured Classroom Literacy Program: A Small School's Experience" (Maine and Kliman). Each paper contains references. (KB)


Descriptors: Child Development; *Classroom Techniques; Cognitive Development; Computer Uses in Education; Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; Emergent Literacy; Foreign Countries; Grouping (Instructional Purposes); *Learning Processes; Literacy Education; Mathematical Concepts; Mathematics Instruction; Play; Poetry; Preschool Education; Program Evaluation; Teaching Methods; Transfer of Training; Writing Instruction; *Young Children
Identifiers: Australia; Challenge; Katz (Lilian G); Koori People; Reggio Emilia Approach



ED426755 PS026316
Title: Innovations in Detroit Head Start. {Videotape}.
Pages: 0
Publication Date: 1997
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Non-print media (100)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1999

The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood teaching is based on curriculum and teaching practices developed in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. This video highlights an ongoing Detroit, Michigan Head Start staff development project, inspired by the Reggio Emilia approach. The staff development program was launched in consultation with Reggio Children, and is sponsored by the Merrill-Palmer Institute of Wayne State University and the Head Start Division of the Detroit Human Services Department. The 16-minute video is organized around the principles of the Reggio Emilia approach, including focus on children's self expression through graphic representation, language, movement and music; teachers as partners in learning through children's interest and curiosity; expanding the environment to allow children to pursue interests, and the project approach, whereby children explore a topic over an extended period of time. The video focuses largely on the impact of the program on the teachers, and features their reflections concerning the Reggio principles and the teachers' experiences in adapting them to the Head Start program. The importance of time in children's learning, the role of the parent, and collaboration of the program's teachers are also highlighted. Also featured are vignettes of the children engaged in a variety of interesting classroom situations and the impressions of some of the parents with children in the program. (HTH)

Descriptors: Childhood Needs; Classroom Environment; *Educational Change; Parent School Relationship; Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; *Staff Development; Teaching Methods; Time Factors (Learning)
Identifiers: Michigan (Detroit); *Project Head Start; *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED413036 PS023951
Title: Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: An Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education.
Author(s) Cadwell, Louise Boyd
Pages: 160
Publication Date: 1997
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1998

This book is a collection of stories describing the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, based on the author's internship in the Italian preschools and a 4-year adaptation effort in one American school. The book's prologue describes the author's work before using the Reggio Emilia approach, the history of Reggio Emilia, the fundamentals of the approach, and the College School of Webster Groves, Missouri where the approach was adapted to a U.S. setting. Chapter 1, "The Journey," details the initial exposure to the Reggio approach, securing an internship, and typical days in the Diana School in Italy. Chapter 2, "The Pleasures and Power of Playing with Materials," discusses the variety of materials available to students and tells stories describing projects children use to build an expanding awareness and understanding of the natural world. Chapter 3, "The Children and the Trees," describes how Reggio Emilia educators define and develop projects, and conveys the story of the children's study of trees and plants. Chapter 4, "Returning Home to St. Louis," describes the move to St. Louis to adapt the Reggio Approach for use in the College School, the importance of spoken language and conversations with children, and the use of visual arts. Chapter 5, "Transforming Space, Time, and Relations," deals with structural and other changes in the preschool space and working with colleagues and parents. Chapter 6, "The Children and the Garden," describes a project on plants which extended from preschool through kindergarten, conversations around the project and grow table designs, children's journals, and sculptures. (Contains 46 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Childrens Art; Childrens Writing; Classroom Design; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; *Educational Innovation; Foreign Countries; Instructional Materials; Journal Writing; Language Skills; Learning Activities; Personal Narratives; Plants (Botany); Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods; Visual Arts; Young Children
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED411992 PS025846
Title: The Parents' Guide to Alternatives in Education.
Author(s) Koetzsch, Ronald E.
Pages: 244
Publication Date: 1997
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB1998

Recognizing that parents have a great range of options in choosing and creating an education for their child, this book is designed to help parents make an informed, conscious choice about their child's schooling. Chapters in the first part of the guide provide an overview of American education, the mainstream public sector and alternative education movements. Chapter 1 looks at the origin and early development of the American public school system. Chapter 2 treats the humanistic-progressive movement, while chapter 3 describes the religious-traditionalist movement. Chapter 4 discusses the range of education alternatives available in the current system. Chapters in the second section deal with six important movements in present-day education: (1) whole language; (2) cooperative learning; (3) the social curriculum; (4) multicultural education; (5) developmental education; and (6) education for character. The third part of the guide looks at 22 types of programs and schools that provide viable alternatives to mainstream public education: Carden Schools, Christian Schools, Comer Schools, Core Knowledge Schools, Essential Schools, Foxfire, Free Schools, Friends Schools, Holistic Schools, International Baccalaureate, Islamic Schools, Jewish Day Schools, Mennonite and Amish Schools, Montessori Schools, Multiple Intelligences, Education, Progressive Schools, Protestant Schools, Reggio Emilia Approach, Catholic Schools, Waldorf Education, and Teenage Liberation. Each chapter presents the approach's history, philosophy and principles; describes practical strategies of the educational approach; describes one or two actual schools using that particular approach; and lists resources and a bibliography. The guide's final section offers practical advice in choosing a school and on creating a school of one's own. Contains 41 references. (Author/KB)

Descriptors: Cooperative Learning; Educational History; Educational Trends; *Elementary Secondary Education; Home Schooling; Multicultural Education; Multiple Intelligences; *Nontraditional Education; *Parents; *Parochial Schools; *Private Schools; Progressive Education; Public Education; Religious Education; School Choice; Whole Language Approach
Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Historical Background; Holistic Education; Reggio Emilia Approach; Waldorf Schools



ED402068 PS024840
Title: The Project Approach Catalog.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.
Pages: 90
Publication Date: November 22, 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); Reference materials--Directories/Catalogs (132)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1997

A project is an extended, in-depth investigation of a topic, ideally one worthy of children's attention and energy. This catalog, prepared for an annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, combines articles explaining the project approach in the classroom with summaries of projects displayed at the meeting. It also contains several ERIC/EECE digests relevant to the project approach. The introductory articles cover such topics as the importance of projects, the project approach in action, documenting projects, frequently asked questions about project work, incorporating the project approach into a traditional curriculum, and results of a brainstorming session among teachers beginning project work. Projects presented at the annual meeting include those on water, rocks, houses, building construction, newspaper, and bicycles. The ERIC digests included in the catalog discuss integrating computers in the early childhood classroom, the benefits of mixed-age grouping, encouraging creativity, the contribution of documentation to the quality of early childhood education, problem solving, Reggio Emilia, and resource rooms for children. Information on a projects web site, project approach institutes, other ERIC texts on the project approach, and how to use the ERIC system is also included. (EV)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; Discovery Learning; Elementary Education; *Experiential Learning; Group Activities; Instructional Innovation; Learning Activities; Problem Solving; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach



ED393608 PS024196
Title: The Contribution of Documentation to the Quality of Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: April 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1996

Documentation, in the forms of observation of children and recordkeeping, has long been practiced in many early childhood programs, particularly in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Documentation typically includes samples of children's work at several stages of completion; photographs showing work in progress; comments by teachers working with the children; transcriptions of children's discussions; and parents' comments. High-quality documentation of children's work contributes to the quality of early childhood programs in at least six ways. First, documentation enhances children's learning. The processes of preparing and displaying documentaries of children's efforts provides a kind of re-visiting of experience during which new understandings are clarified and strengthened. Second, careful and attractive documentary displays convey to children that their efforts are taken seriously. Third, documentation encourages continuous teacher planning and evaluation of work with children. When teachers and children plan together, activities are likely to be undertaken with greater interest and representational skill than when children plan alone or when teachers are unaware of challenges facing the children. Fourth, documentation fosters parent appreciation and participation. Through learning about the work in which their children are engaged, parents may contribute ideas for activities to teachers and their own time in the classroom. Fifth, teacher research and process awareness is fostered by documentation. As teachers examine and document children's work, their understanding of children's development is deepened in ways not likely to occur from inspecting test results. Sixth, children's learning is made visible through documentation, which provides information about children's progress that cannot be obtained from standardized tests. When children are engaged in absorbing and complex projects, documentation can make a contribution in these six ways. (BC)

Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; Parent Participation; *Portfolio Assessment; Preschool Children; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Student Projects; *Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED389474 PS023972
Title: Encouraging Creativity in Early Childhood Classrooms. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Springate, Kay Wright
Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1996

This digest considers teacher- and child-initiated strategies for enhancing young children's self-expression and creativity. When teachers think about art and creative activities for children, it is important for them to consider that young children: (1) are developmentally capable of classroom experiences which call for (and practice) higher level thinking skills, including analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; (2) need to express ideas through different expressive avenues and symbolic media; (3) learn through meaningful activities in which different subject areas are integrated; and (4) benefit from in-depth exploration and long-term projects. Given what is known about young children's learning and their competence to express their visions of themselves, classrooms and classroom activities can be modified in several ways to support children's emerging creativity. First, class schedules should provide children with unhurried time to explore. Children should not be artificially rotated from one activity to another. Second, children's work spaces should inspire them. Children's work is fostered by a space that has natural light, harmonious colors, and comfortable work areas. Third, teachers can provide children with wonderful collections of resource materials that might be bought, found, or recycled. Fourth, the classroom atmosphere should reflect the adults' encouragement and acceptance of mistakes, risk-taking, innovation, and uniqueness, along with a certain amount of mess, noise, and freedom. In order to create such a climate, teachers must give themselves permission to try artistic activity. Finally, teachers can provide occasions for intense encounters between children and their inner or outer world. Children's best work involves such encounters. (BC)

Descriptors: Art Materials; Class Activities; Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Creative Activities; *Creative Development; *Creative Expression; *Creativity; Early Childhood Education; Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Student Relationship; *Young Children
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED395665 PS024151
Title: The Environment Is the Child's Condition.
Author(s) Eskesen, Karin
Pages: 13
Publication Date: October 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: Denmark
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1996

Drawing upon the philosophy of several educational theorists and several educational approaches, this paper discusses the educational environment of Danish schools and preschools. Given the significant number of hours that children spend in schools, the importance of methods employed by the schools for the care and education of children is emphasized, in addition to close cooperation with parents. Noting that Piaget saw children as active creators, the significance of designing classrooms as flexible environments which encourage an active educational process is discussed. In agreement with the Reggio Emilia educational approach, which demands a constant analysis of pedagogical practice, documentation and its display in the form of themes and project structures to children, parents, and staff is stressed. The importance of seeking to discover the vast potentialities of every child and of providing a classroom environment that makes participation and communication possible is discussed. Guided by pedagogical and psychological insight, the partnership between teachers, parents, and architects in reconstructing a preschool is described. Teachers' experiences in restructuring the preschool are shared. (BAC)

Descriptors: *Active Learning; Child Development; *Classroom Environment; Documentation; *Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; *Parent Participation; Partnerships in Education; Preschool Education; Schools; *Student Participation; Student Projects
Identifiers: *Piaget (Jean); *Reggio Emilia Approach; Royal Danish School of Educ Studies (Denmark)



ED388425 PS023720
Title: Lessons from Reggio Emilia: An American Perspective.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 9
Publication Date: October 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1996

Early childhood education specialists in the United States can learn from the Reggio Emilia experience. This document details five aspects of Reggio Emilia practices in the following sections: (1) "The Contribution of Graphic Languages to Young Children's Project Work," discussing how children are encouraged to use graphic languages and other media, including various visual media, to represent memories, predictions, hypotheses, and ideas; (2) "Children's Awareness of What is Valued by Adults," crediting part of the success of the Reggio Emilia preprimary classes to the children's sense of what is important to the adults in their lives; (3) "The Content of Relationships," emphasizing that relationships need content of mutual concern or interest to provide pretexts and texts for interactions; (4) "The Value of Documentation," asserting the importance of documentation of children's ideas, experiences, and efforts to the program's overall quality; and (5) "The Role of the Leader in the Quality of Education," discussing the complex role of leaders in advancing practices. (BGC)

Descriptors: Communication Skills; Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Practices; Educational Theories; Language Skills; Languages; Observation; Observational Learning; *Progressive Education; Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: Dewey (John); Plowden Report; *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED381264 PS023164
Title: Early Childhood Education and Beyond: Can We Adapt the Practices and Philosophies from the Preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy into Our Elementary Schools in America?
Author(s) Firlik, Russell
Pages: 14
Publication Date: March 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1995

The model presented by the preschools in Reggio Emilia, Italy, is one of cooperation and collaborations among teachers, parents, and children; curriculum based on the "project approach," and constructivist learning philosophy, which states that children construct their knowledge and values as a result of interactions with and action on the physical and social world. American early childhood educators and researchers have expressed notable interest in the Reggio Emilia programs; however differences in the American and European thinking attitudes within a macro society, and cultural conventions make adapting or transporting methods with European roots difficult at best. An example of differences in thinking would be the way Americans have discarded European traditions of evaluating ideas and systems of thought according to "intellectual consistency" or aesthetic appeal. Cultural differences include: individualism versus collectivism; the American emphasis on "equalitarianism"; forms of activity of doing rather than being; the separation of work and play; and the dichotomy between competition and affiliation. Several elements need to be in place in American schools before any successful transitions from preschool to elementary school can take place, including preparation of children for such transitions, involvement of parents in each step of the process, and continuity of program through developmentally diverse and age/individual appropriate curricula. Although the Reggio Emilia schools do not have administrators or head teachers, their programs support the administrator's practical role in promoting development. Administrators must promote teachers and children to be curriculum makers; invite parents to be part of the classroom; allow time for observing the project process; allow planning time for teachers; and encourage and support practitioners by giving them time to develop. Contains nine references. (HTH)

Descriptors: Administrator Role; Comparative Analysis; Constructivism (Learning); *Cultural Differences; Educational Attitudes; Elementary Education; Parent Participation; Preschool Education; School Readiness; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED401028 PS024751
Title: Competence: News for the CDA Community, 1995.
Author(s) Brown, Patricia A., Ed.
Publication Date: 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1997

These three newsletter issues provide organizational news from the Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, the organization that administers the program that awards the Child Development Associate (CDA) credential to caregivers. Each issue provides a CDA profile of an exceptional educator or caregiver and a listing of CDA training sessions. The March 1995 issue profiles one of the first CDAs. This issue also describes the Quality 2000 initiative for quality improvement of early care and education and provides information on the CDA history book and the CDA training program. The July 1995 issue contains a retrospective of the Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, including a listing of significant achievements. This issue also contains a legislative update related to the CDA designation in Florida and Oklahoma and a report from the state of Florida on the impact of the CDA credential. The November 1995 issue begins with a letter thanking supporters of the Council. This issue also contains an article concerning CDA involvement by the first Council board president, guidelines and procedures for new CDA renewals and second setting CDA credentials, a profile of the Essex County, New Jersey, on-site training program, and a table of Reggio Emilia resources available from the Council. (SD)

Descriptors: Certification; *Child Caregivers; *Child Development Specialists; *Credentials; Early Childhood Education; Newsletters; Professional Continuing Education; *Professional Development; *Professional Education; Professional Training; Quality Control
Identifiers: CDA; *CDA Credential; *Child Development Associate; Florida; Italy (Reggio Emilia); New Jersey; Oklahoma; Reggio Emilia Approach



ED395866 SO026105
Title: Community.
Author(s) Grauer, Kit, Ed.
Pages: 33
Publication Date: 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English; Spanish
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: Netherlands
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1996

Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll Project" (Anami Naths); (3) "Community Arts: Society & Culture" (Maro Socratous Tozzetti); (4) "Teacher Education in Eatonville, Florida: Building on Zona Neale Hurston's Legacy" (Kristin G. Congdon); (5) "Reggio Emilia: Early Childhood Education Links" (Sally A. Meyers); (6) "A Community of Teachers: Anything That Is Worth Doing Is Worth Overdoing" (Enid Zimmerman); (7) "A Community Context into Art Classes" (M. Cristina Biazus); (8) "Educacion Para El Siglo XXI" (Olga Blinder); (9) "The Outing of School Art: Art, Design & Community" (Stuart MacDonald); (10) "A Regina Community Project with National Flavour" (Tanya McElree); and (11) "Community, Identity, & Japanese Aesthetics: Culture of Being 'cute' (Kawaii)" (Itsuro Ikeuchi). This issue also contains a special homage to Eleanor Hipwell. (NP)

Descriptors: *Aesthetic Values; *Art Education; Art Therapy; Built Environment; Childrens Art; Clothing Design; Community Education; *Cultural Context; Early Childhood Education; Foreign Countries; Japanese Culture; Multicultural Education; Refugees; *School Community Relationship; Teacher Education; Visual Arts; War
Identifiers: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Reggio Emilia Approach



ED375986 PS022934
Title: Reflections on the Reggio Emilia Approach. Perspectives from ERIC/EECE: A Monograph Series No. 6.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Cesarone, Bernard, Ed.
Pages: 135
Publication Date: December 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); ERIC product (071); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1995

This monograph consists of seven papers that discuss issues related to the teaching approach used in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. The papers are: (1) "Images from the World: Study Seminar on the Experience of the Municipal Infant-Toddler Centers and the Preprimary Schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy" (Lilian G. Katz), which identifies problems that warrant consideration by American educators trying to adapt the Reggio Emilia approach to schools in the United States; (2) "Images from the United States: Using Ideas from the Reggio Emilia Experience with American Educators" (Brenda Fyfe), which shares insights of teachers in the St. Louis, Missouri, area as they implement the Reggio Emilia approach in their classrooms; (3) "Reggio Emilia: Its Visions and Its Challenges for Educators in the United States" (Rebecca New), which notes the similarities and differences in the way teachers in Italy and the United States perform their daily work; (4) "Different Media, Different Languages" (George Forman), which explains the role of graphic "languages" in children's learning; (5) "Staff Development in Reggio Emilia" (Carlina Rinaldi), which explains the Reggio Emilia schools' unique approach to staff development; (6) "An Integrated Art Approach in a Preschool" (Giordana Rabitti), which details a case study of a children's project conducted in one of the preprimary schools in Reggio Emilia; and (7) "Promoting Collaborative Learning in the Early Childhood Classroom: Teachers' Contrasting Conceputalizations in Two Communities" (Carolyn Edwards, Lella Gandini, and John Nimmo), which examines the beliefs of teachers in Italy and the United States about their roles and about the nature of children as learners. A reference list is appended to some of the papers. The monograph also contains a bibliography of 22 items on the Reggio Emilia approach selected from the ERIC database, and a list of additional resources on the Reggio Emilia approach. (BC)

Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; *Art Activities; *Cultural Differences; Foreign Countries; Freehand Drawing; Infants; Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; *Program Implementation; Staff Development; Teacher Attitudes; *Teaching Methods; Toddlers
Identifiers: Collaborative Learning; Italy; Program Adaptation; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach; United States



ED376936 PS022658
Title: Reggio Emilia: An In-Depth View.
Author(s) Jaruszewicz, Candace
Pages: 35
Publication Date: July 13, 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Pennsylvania
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1995

This paper examines the preschool programs of the Reggio Emilia region of Northern Italy, describing the role of Loris Malaguzzi in the founding of the municipal preschools in the region after the Second World War and discussing the theoretical and philosophical basis of the child-centered, developmentally appropriate, art- centered Reggio Emilia approach. The administrative infrastructure, the facility and environment, the faculty, and emergent curriculum of the infant/toddler centers and preschools are examined, along with the role that parents play in the education of their children. The world-wide impact of the Reggio Emilia approach to preschool education is analyzed (more than 10,000 visitors have come to Reggio Emilia from all over the world to visit its preschools since 1979). The implications of the approach for early childhood education in the United States is discussed, centering on two areas of concern in the United States--the appropriateness of both full-day care and academic programs for preschoolers. Areas of agreement between Reggio Emilia and American practices are listed, along with areas in which Reggio presents a challenge to American views of early childhood education. An appendix describes 11 student projects undertaken in Reggio Emilia preschools and in American preschools using the Reggio Emilia Approach. (Contains 19 references.) (MDM)

Descriptors: *Art Activities; Comparative Analysis; Early Childhood Education; Educational Administration; Educational History; Educational Philosophy; Foreign Countries; Influences; Parent Participation; *Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; Program Descriptions; Small Group Instruction; *Student Centered Curriculum; Teacher Role; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Emergent Curriculum; Italy (Reggio Emilia); *Reggio Emilia Approach; United States



ED376928 PS022546
Title: Images from the World.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 24
Publication Date: June 06, 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1995

This presentation examines the state of preschool education in developed and developing nations, and discusses how the art-oriented, child-centered approach of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, may be used to help improve preschool education worldwide. Although the majority of parents in many nations are satisfied with the educational opportunities their preschool children receive, many are unaware of the opportunities that programs such as those in Reggio Emilia provide for the enhancement of children's physical, social, and intellectual development. Educators need to create a greater public awareness of the benefits of the Reggio Emilia approach, and address issues concerning the adoption or adaption of the approach in preschools in other countries. Questions generated by adapting the Reggio Emilia approach include whether it is, in fact, adaptable, and what specific features are most adaptable to a given culture. These features include collaboration, documentation, parent participation, project work, "Atelieristi" (art instructors) and "Pedagogisti" (teacher advisors). Educators need to consider how the components of the Reggio Emilia approach can be integrated into existing programs, how to bring about such change at the local level, and how to increase parental involvement in and support for this form of preschool education. Propositions to keep in mind for successful change include: (1) change is learning; (2) change is resource-hungry; (3) change requires the power to manage it; and (4) change is systemic. (MDM)

Descriptors: *Change Strategies; *Educational Attitudes; *Educational Change; Foreign Countries; Parent Participation; *Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; Program Improvement; Public Relations; *Student Centered Curriculum; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Program Characteristics; *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED375932 PS022558
Title: Different Media, Different Languages.
Author(s) Forman, George
Pages: 15
Publication Date: May 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1995

This paper discusses the use of different media for art instruction and creative activities with preschoolers at the Reggio Emilia preschools in Italy. Drawing made with markers, paper constructions, clay sculpture, and wooden constructions are all used to deepen children's understanding of a particular theme or concept. Typically, a small group of children will work together in a team, each making a version of their idea in several media. Each medium has different "affordances," or capacities for representing a concept, that make some concepts more easily represented than others. Each medium also provokes a special orientation to the problem to be solved, with the medium itself orienting the child to certain classes of meaning. Experience has shown that children readily learn to make compromises with what a particular medium does not easily afford, and that sequences across media will affect children's success. Children should also be encouraged to revise earlier representations because of discoveries made with more recent representations. (MDM)

Descriptors: *Art Activities; *Art Education; Childhood Attitudes; *Class Activities; Construction (Process); Creative Activities; *Creative Expression; Creativity; Foreign Countries; Freehand Drawing; Preschool Education; Sculpture; *Young Children
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED386295 PS023510
Title: Teacher Change Using Reflective Practice When Attempting to Move toward a Reggio Emilia Approach.
Author(s) Erlich, Beverly J.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan
Pages: 102
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN1996

This 4-week case study followed a kindergarten teacher (the first author of the report) moving from a conventional teaching approach to one drawing from the philosophies of the preschools in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The teacher kept a journal in order to document her reflective practice, and to describe, reflect, and analyze shifts in her beliefs and practices in working with 5- and 6-year-olds. Three specific areas were addressed: practices toward children, toward parents, and toward her self-development. The teacher then analyzed the journal entries qualitatively by applying scholarly works on teacher change and reflective practice. Content analysis identified "idea units," which were coded. Quantitative analysis was also performed using chi square analysis. Results showed significantly greater shifts in practices regarding teacher role than in practices regarding parental involvement, children's participation, and belief regarding the image of the child. The following recommendations are made for practitioners shifting to a Reggio Emilia-style approach: (1) all teacher change is continuous and ongoing; and (2) the teacher must have a positive attitude and be ready to take risks, make mistakes, and sometimes fail. (Four appendices include the journal and idea units for coding the journal. Contains 49 references.) (TM)

Descriptors: *Classroom Techniques; Educational Methods; Educational Philosophy; Educational Principles; Educational Strategies; *Primary Education; *Reflective Teaching; *Teacher Attitudes; *Teaching Methods; Teaching Skills; Teaching Styles
Identifiers: *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED384419 PS023329
Title: The National Learning Center: Annual Report 1994.
Pages: 26
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIENOV1995

The Capital Children's Museum, the Options School, and the Model Early Learning Center are the three major components of the National Learning Center. The museum exposes children to a variety of subjects and concepts, including fine arts, science, foreign and local cultures, and social history. Its exhibits are designed to promote active engagement with local and international communities, and active exploration of human capacities for communication and creation. In addition to the exhibits, the museum includes a computer lab which offers a variety of classes for children and adults, a media arts program that offers animation classes for beginning to advanced students, and a variety of additional programs designed to engage children and families in the educational process. The Options School is an intensive one-year dropout-prevention program serving 100 economically disadvantaged sixth and seventh graders who have been identified as being most at-risk of dropping out of school. The Model Early Learning Center is an adaptation of the preschool programs of Reggio Emilia. During 1994 the National Learning Center hosted a wide variety of exhibits, performances, and events as well as a symposium on Multiple Intelligences Theory in practice and on the philosophy and practices of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. (AA)

Descriptors: Annual Reports; Art Education; Computer Oriented Programs; Cultural Pluralism; Discovery Learning; Dropouts; *Educational Facilities; Exhibits; *Experiential Learning; *Learning Resources Centers; *Museums; Program Descriptions
Identifiers: *Capital Childrens Museum DC; Reggio Emilia Approach



ED382313 PS022958
Title: Reggio Emilia, Italy Preschools: The Synergies of Theory and Practice.
Author(s) Firlik, Russell J.
Pages: 12
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1995

Drawing from several weeks of observation and study in Northern Italian preschools, this paper links practices in Reggio Emilia with the theoretical constructs of John Dewey, Susan Isaacs, and Howard Gardner. Part 1 presents background about the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, which are unique both in their respect for the space created for children to help them organize their environment and foster social and cognitive relationships, and in their highly trained and dedicated personnel. Part 2 aligns the philosophical and psychological perspectives of Dewey, Isaacs, and Gardner, with observable classroom practices. This section indicates that: (1) the influences of Dewey can be seen in Reggio Emilia preschools' concern and respect for the individual child, recognition that everyone involved affects each child and his or her individual disposition, and success in building a miniature community of learners; (2) Susan Issac's influences can be seen in the "child-sensitive" schools of Reggio Emilia, which use movement to interpret learning and express understanding, and which utilize child-sized, movable furniture; and (3) Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences is reflected in Reggio Emilia's emphasis on in-depth student projects and on developing the sense of self. A chart comparing Dewey, Isaacs, and Gardner on early childhood education theories is included. (AC)

Descriptors: *Educational Environment; *Educational Philosophy; Educational Psychology; *Educational Theories; Foreign Countries; Preschool Children; *Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; Student Projects; Teacher Attitudes; *Theory Practice Relationship
Identifiers: Dewey (John); Gardner (Howard); Isaacs (Susan); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED379077 PS022923
Title: Resources for Early Childhood: A Handbook.
Author(s) Nuba, Hannah, Ed.; And Others
Pages: 555
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Reference materials (130)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1995

Designed for use by both parents and professionals who work with young children, this reference work is intended to include all of the major areas in the field of early childhood education. Current topics such as AIDS and computers are addressed, as are more traditional concerns such as family and parenting issues. The book is organized into six topical chapters, which include short essays and lists of resources relating to specific subjects within the main topic. These chapters cover the following: (1) growth and development; (2) social and emotional development; (3) family issues; (4) child care and early education; (5) the expressive and cultural arts; and (6) social policies. The seventh chapter, Services and Information, contains lists of organizations involved in early childhood education, electronic information services, and government agencies. Also included is an index of approximately 1,000 titles referred to in the book. (SW)

Descriptors: Beginning Reading; Child Abuse; *Child Development; *Child Rearing; Children; Disabilities; *Early Childhood Education; Emotional Development; Family Environment; Fine Arts; *Information Sources; Language Acquisition; Personality Development; Public Policy; *Social Development
Identifiers: Early Childhood Resource and Info Ctr; High Scope Model; Reggio Emilia Approach



ED375923 PS022434
Title: American Early Education Reform: Adaptation Not Adoption from Reggio Emilia, Italy.
Author(s) Firlik, Russell J.
Pages: 17
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1995

The Reggio Emilia preschools in Italy have much to offer U.S. early education practitioners. If adapted, based on an understanding of American culture and of how American children learn, four components of the Reggio Emilia model can be useful in American early childhood settings. First, projects based on the interests of children can be used to develop a deeper understanding of a phenomenon over an undetermined period of time. Second, children can be encouraged to express their thinking, feelings, and dispositions creatively in various modes of expression, with parents playing an important role in the learning process. Third, teachers should become systematic researchers into the ways that children learn and construct knowledge, carefully observing and documenting children's thinking and development. Fourth, teachers should recognize the educational possibilities of the environment, with its power to organize and promote personal relationships, create beauty, provide changes, and promote choices and activities. School administrators have an enabling role to play in school reform. They should encourage teachers to share their successes, invite parents to be part of the classroom, visit classrooms often, and provide teachers with the time, funding, and recognition needed to make meaningful changes in the classroom. Specific practical suggestions for teachers are presented for each model component. Contains 22 references. (AC)

Descriptors: *Action Research; Classroom Design; *Classroom Environment; Educational Improvement; Foreign Countries; Models; Parent Participation; Portfolios (Background Materials); *Preschool Education; *Student Projects; *Teacher Role; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); *Reggio Emilia Approach



ED354988 PS021008
Title: Reggio Emilia: Some Lessons for U.S. Educators. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) New, Rebecca S.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: 1993
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL1993

An internationally acclaimed program that challenges American notions of appropriate early education is the municipal early childhood program in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The town's liberal financial support of child care and citizen membership in school committees indicate strong community support. Parents are involved in school policy discussions, child development concerns, and curriculum planning. The administration of the early childhood program consists of a head administrator, team leaders, and teachers. There is no hierarchical relationship among teachers. Teacher in-service education is provided through extensive staff development opportunities. The organization of the physical environment of the school is crucial to the program. Spaces are designed so that classrooms are integrated with the school and schools with the surrounding community. Class activities include projects that teachers work on with small groups of children. Project topics are chosen based on teacher observations of children's play, or teachers' or parents' academic curiosity. As they proceed in their investigation of a topic, children are encouraged to depict their understanding through drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing. Several characteristics of the Reggio Emilia approach that challenge American conceptions of developmentally appropriate practice include teachers' beliefs in the importance of being confused as a contributor to learning and the importance of children's ability to negotiate in peer groups. (Contains nine references.) (BC)

Descriptors: *Class Activities; *Community Support; Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; Inservice Teacher Education; Parent Participation; *Physical Environment; *Preschool Education; *Program Administration; Program Descriptions; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Symbolic Language; Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Italy (Reggio Emilia)

View the bibliography of journal articles.