Bibliography of Citations on the Project Approach in the ERIC Database

ERIC Documents

ED478224 PS031358
Title: Project Approach: Teaching. Second Edition.
Author(s) Ho, Rose
Author Affiliation: Salvation Army Child Care Services (Hong Kong).(BBB37109)
Pages: 80
Publication Date: June 2003
ISBN: 962-7628-98-0
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Child Care Resource Centre, % 5/F Child Care Services, Salvation Army HQ, 11 Wing Sing Lane, Yaumatei, Kowloon, Hong Kong $20). Tel: 852-2332-4531; Fax: 852-2783-0363; e-mail: ccrc@netvigator.com; Web site: http://ccs.salvation.org.hk.
Language: Chinese; English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Multilingual/bilingual materials (171)
Geographic Source: Hong Kong
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2004
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers

The primary objective of the action research chronicled (in English and Chinese) in this book was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the Project Approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the Project Approach, focusing on their language ability, social development, and self-initiated learning. Teacher supervisors received training on the Project Approach, including training in brainstorming, questioning techniques, drama and learning, and emergent curriculum. Participating in the action research were 12 children from 3 experimental centers. Data were collected by videotaping classroom activities and reviewing teachers' journals, children's portfolios, and project books. Findings suggest that children became more capable in language ability, self-initiated learning, social and cooperative skills, comprehension, and expression as they carried out their own project work. Two new projects are detailed in this new edition: "Knowing Our CommunityYaumatei"; and "The Ram," in conjunction with 2003,the Chinese Year of the Ram. (Contains 23 references.) (HTH)

Descriptors: *Action Research; Foreign Countries; Multilingual Materials; *Preschool Children; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; *Professional Development; Program Descriptions; Reggio Emilia Approach; *Student Projects; Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Hong Kong; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED476815 PS031306
Title: The Power of Projects: Meeting Contemporary Challenges in Early Childhood Classrooms- Strategies and Solutions.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.; Beneke, Sallee, Ed.
Author Affiliation: National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.(FGK56164); Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers College.(QPX17850)
Pages: 127
Publication Date: 2003
ISBN: 0-8077-4298-8
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: NAEYC, Educational Resources and Products, P.O. Box 932569, Atlanta, GA 31193-2569
($16, Member Price; $19, Non-Member Price, Stock No. 211).
Tel: 866-623-9248 (Toll Free); Tel: 202-232-8777, ext: 2001; Fax: 770-442-9742;
Web site: http://www.naeyc.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2004
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers

The project approach to teaching allows children to explore a topic in depth and document his or her learning. This guide for teachers shows how good project work can address challenges faced by early childhood teachers, such as overcoming ill effects of poverty, or responding to children with special needs. The book provides guidelines for curriculum to meet these challenges and shows how project work provides a structure for classrooms focused on children's learning, and shares documentation of highly effective projects. The book begins with two articles providing a rationale for project work: "Contemporary Challenges in Early Childhood Education" (Judy Harris Helm), and "Building a Good Foundation for Children" (Lilian G. Katz). The next five sections present articles documenting how project work addresses the specific challenges outlined earlier: (1) overcoming the ill effects of poverty; (2) moving children toward literacy; (3) responding to children's special needs; (4) supporting second-language learners; and (5) meeting standards effectively. Two concluding articles by Judy Harris Helm address the importance of documentation in project work and future challenges. Appended are answers to frequently asked questions and some practical advice on implementing project work, and a list of recommended resources. (HTH)

Descriptors: Academic Standards; Change Strategies; Curriculum Development; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; Disadvantaged; Documentation; Early Childhood Education; Emergent Literacy; Reflective Teaching; Second Language Learning; Special Needs Students; Student Needs; *Student Projects; *Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Best Practices; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED474781 PS031171
Title: Bringing Learning to Life: The Reggio Approach to Early Childhood Education.
Author(s) Cadwell, Louise Boyd
Pages: 212
Publication Date: 2003
Notes: Foreword by Carlina Rinaldi.
ISBN: 0-8077-4296-1
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Teachers College Press, P.O. Box 20, Williston, VT 05495-0020 ($19.95).
Tel: 800-575-6566 (Toll Free); Fax: 802-864-7626;
Web site: http://
www.teacherscollegepress.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2003
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners

Increasingly, the innovative teaching approach of the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are being adapted to U.S. early childhood settings. This book describes the growth and evolution of the work in the St. Louis Reggio Collaborative over the past 10 years, addressing the fundamental principles of the Reggio approach as they are experienced in the daily life of three American schools that have attained a very high level of understanding and practice. Following a prologue presenting a history of Reggio Emilia and describing the ideas integral to the Reggio approach, the book is organized into six chapters. A journal-style format is used to convey real-life classrooms between January and June in 2000, including details on the flow of the day, parent participation, teacher collaboration, the importance of the environment, documenting students work, and assessment. Chapter 1 describes the phases of a day as seen from the perspective of the author as an "atelierista" or studio teacher. Chapter 2 focuses on partnerships with parents, including relationship-building with parents and forms and structures for parent participation. Chapter 3 concerns teacher collaboration and includes stories of challenges faced and discoveries made. Chapter 4 focuses on the transformation of the space in the "atelier" or studio. Chapter 5 illuminates the innate intelligence and creativity of young children through vignettes from student projects. Chapter 6 recounts the significant highlights of a week-long study tour in Reggio Emilia, illustrating connections with the work in St. Louis and the pull to construct stronger systems based on core values. The book's epilogue presents a dialogue among teachers revealing their current understanding of assessment and documentation as two different worldviews: analytical, reductionist, and decontextualized compared to holistic, dynamic, and relational. The book concludes by noting that in many ways, the St. Louis Reggio Collaborative, is trying to build bridges between these two ways of living life in school. (Contains 71 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Administrators; Classroom Environment; *Preschool Children; *Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; Reflective Teaching; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Student Projects; Teacher Collaboration; *Teaching Methods

Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Missouri (Saint Louis); Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


 


ED466312 PS030476
Title: Hollyhocks and Honeybees: Garden Projects for Young Children.
Author(s) Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Marla; Midden, Karen
Pages: 186
Publication Date: 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2003

Children are drawn to nature and the outdoors. This guide details the inclusion of gardening in the preschool curriculum at a university child development program in Illinois. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Garden?" details the benefits of gardening for young children, describes the project approach used, discusses the role of the teacher, and presents procedures for developing a "gardening" topic web. Chapter 2, "Engaging Children in Gardening," describes how to foster personal investment and common knowledge, engage children in the process of discussing what they know about gardens and what they want to learn, plan fieldwork, choose garden themes, and document children learning throughout the project. Chapter 3, "Planning Your Garden," describes in detail--with sample plans--five theme gardens and includes ideas for other theme gardens. Chapter 4, "Building Your Garden," describes the children's role in building the garden, details construction steps for different types of gardens, and discusses plant selection. Chapter 5, "Working with Children in the Garden," discusses ways to include and supervise children in planting, maintaining, and harvesting the garden and describes the creatures likely to be attracted to the garden. Chapter 6 answers frequently asked questions about the gardening project. Chapter 7, "Universal Garden Learning Experiences," suggests gardening activities that can be done in any garden. Chapter 8 contains recipes for the garden such as potting soil and bug spray and recipes for the harvest. The guide's six appendices include lists of children's books and reference books about gardens and garden creatures, lists of sources for garden and environmental education supplies, a list of common and botanical names of plants mentioned, and a list of poisonous plants. Chapters 1 through 5 contain references. (KB)

Descriptors: Environmental Education; *Gardening; *Gardens; *Learning Activities; *Outdoor Activities; *Outdoor Education; Preschool Children; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Education; Recipes (Food); *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED464768 PS030407
Title: Faces to the Window: "The Construction Project."
Author(s) Berry, Julia H.; Allen, Elizabeth H.
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v4 n1 Spr 2002
Pages: 34
Publication Date: 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2002

A view of construction from the window of a first-grade classroom was the catalyst for a multi-grade, multidisciplinary curriculum project at St. Patrick's Episcopal Day School in Washington, DC. This article provides background information on the school and the project, and details the students' work. The project description includes how the project gradually came to encompass teachers and children throughout the school; the teacher's colleagues in technology, science, art, religion, and music as well as children in the nursery school, kindergarten, and grades 5 and 6 worked with the first-grade students on different portions of the project. The article includes captioned photographs documenting the construction site and the students' work. (Author/HTH)

Descriptors: Building Trades; *Class Activities; Construction (Process); Documentation; Grade 1; Primary Education; Reflective Teaching; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED464761 PS030400
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Spring 2002.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v4 n1 Spr 2002
Pages: 184
Publication Date: 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2002

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. Also included are articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. The first part of this issue of ECRP contains the following major articles on research and practice: (1) "Moving up the Grades: Relationship between Preschool Model and Later School Success" (Rebecca A. Marcon); (2) "The Role of Pretend Play in Children's Cognitive Development" (Doris Bergen); (3) "Learning To Guide Preschool Children's Mathematical Understanding: A Teacher's Professional Growth" (Anna Kirova and Ambika Bhargava); and (4) "Demographic Characteristics of Early Childhood Teachers and Structural Elements of Early Care and Education in the United States" (Gitanjali Saluja, Diane M. Early, and Richard M. Clifford). The second part presents the following observations and reflections: (1) "Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia" (Carolyn Pope Edwards). Two additional feature articles focus on child care and the Project Approach: (1) "Keeping Current in Child Care Research--Annotated Bibliography: An Update" (Deborah Ceglowski and Cara Bacigalupa); and (2) "Faces to the Window: The Construction Project" (Julia H. Berry & Elizabeth H. Allen). The journal concludes with a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (HTH)

Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies; Cognitive Development; *Day Care; Demography; *Early Childhood Education; *Electronic Journals; Mathematical Concepts; Models; Montessori Method; *Preschool Curriculum; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Attitudes; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Waldorf Schools


ED464732 PS030350
Title: Implementing Project Approach in Hong Kong. Preschool.
Author(s) Ho, Rose
Pages: 123
Publication Date: November 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: Chinese; English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Multilingual/bilingual materials (171)
Geographic Source: Hong Kong
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2002

The primary objective of this action research was to shift the teaching method used by preschool teachers in Hong Kong from a teacher-directed mode by training them to use the project approach. The secondary objective was to measure children's achievement while using the project approach, focusing on their language ability, social development, and self-initiated learning. Teacher supervisors received training on the project approach, including training in brainstorming, questioning techniques, drama and learning, and emergent curriculum. Participating in the action research were 12 children from 3 experimental centers. Data were collected by videotaping classroom activities and reviewing teachers' journals, children's portfolios, and project books. Findings suggest that children became more capable in language comprehension and expression as they carried out their own project work. By the end of the classroom project, 87 percent of the class showed interest in the project and 35 percent were able to generate solutions to problems. Over half the children were able to cooperate with classmates at the end of the project, and 86 percent were eager to participate in group activities. Examination of the project books showed that teachers were moving from a teacher-directed mode to a more children-directed paradigm. Teachers' journals noted that teachers became more aware of giving children ample opportunities to explore and to learn from their own mistakes. (Contains 18 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Action Research; *Early Childhood Education; Foreign Countries; Multilingual Materials; *Preschool Children; Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; *Professional Development; Program Descriptions; *Student Projects; Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Emergent Curriculum; Hong Kong; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED458952 PS029904
Title: Project Approach: Taking a Closer Look. What Is Worth Knowing More about Where You Live? {CD-ROM}.
Author(s) Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 0
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Non-print media (100)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2002

This CD-ROM presents accounts of seven children's projects, illustrated by several hundred photographs of project work in progress and samples of children's work. A structural framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating project work is also presented, with specific reference to the sample projects. The challenges and rewards for teachers new to project work are discussed with reference to teachers' own experience with the children in their classrooms. (KB)

Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Elementary School Curriculum; Optical Disks; Photographs; Planning; *Student Centered Curriculum; Student Evaluation; *Student Projects; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED458044 PS029911
Title: Purposeful Learning: A Study of Water.
Author(s) Dixon, Becky
Source: Early Childhood Research & Practice, v3 n2 Fall 2001
Pages: 20
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Indiana
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2002

This article describes a project on water undertaken by kindergartners. The article first lists criteria that help determine the merit of a topic for study, followed by a discussion of how the water project emerged. Preliminary work by the teachers, the formation of groups to explore specific aspects of water, and the results of each group's work are then discussed. The article then presents the role of the teacher in providing teacher-directed activities to complement project work. Finally, the article examines how the activities undertaken during a project meet state and local standards. (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: *Academic Standards; Documentation; Early Childhood Education; Experiential Learning; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Learning Activities; Primary Education; *State Standards; Student Centered Curriculum; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED458039 PS029906
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Fall 2001.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2002

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. This issue of ECRP contains the following major articles: (1) "Examining Multicultural Picture Books for the Early Childhood Classroom: Possibilities and Pitfalls" (Jean Mendoza and Debbie Reese); (2) "Starting School: Effective Transitions" (Sue Dockett and Bob Perry); (3) "Professional Growth Reconceptualized: Early Childhood Staff Searching for Meaning" (Alma Fleet and Catherine Patterson); (4) "The Synthesis of Writing Workshop and Hypermedia-Authoring: Grades 1-4" (Michael Seth Mott and Jeannine M. Klomes); (5) "Building Equitable Staff-Parent Communication in Early Childhood Settings: An Australian Case Study" (Patrick Hughes and Glenda MacNaughton); and (6) "Purposeful Learning: A Study of Water" (Becky Dixon). The issue concludes with an ERIC database search on multicultural education and children's picture books and a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Practices; *Educational Research; *Electronic Journals; Hypermedia; Internet; Multicultural Education; Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Picture Books; Professional Development; Student Projects; Teaching Methods; Transitional Programs; Writing Instruction
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED453003 PS029514
Title: The Combine Project: An Experience in a Dual-Language Classroom = El proyecto de la cosechadora: una experiencia en una clase bilingue.
Author(s) Wilson, Rebecca
Pages: 63
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English; Spanish
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Multilingual/bilingual materials (171)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Iowa
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2001

This article, also available in Spanish, describes what happened when a bilingual kindergarten class in West Liberty, Iowa, investigated a combine. The dual-language Kindergarten program supports content area instruction in both Spanish and English. The first part of the article tells the story of the Combine Project, this class's first project work, which began with a typical kindergarten field trip to a farm and ended with a parent night to show a combine constructed by the kindergartners. The second part of the article discusses the teacher's reflections on learning how to guide projects. Reflections by the teacher include relating kindergarten goals to projects, supporting second-language learners, involving parents, and including children with special needs. (Author/EV)

Descriptors: *Bilingual Education Programs; Experiential Learning; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Parent Participation; Primary Education; Program Descriptions; Special Needs Students; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED452996 PS029507
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, 2001.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2001

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. The journal emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. Also included are articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. The first part of this issue of ECRP contains the following major articles on research and practice: (1) "A Trip to the Zoo: Children's Words and Photographs" (Darlene DeMarie); (2) "Locatives and Visuomotor Skills in the Kindergarten Year" (Deborah Marr, Mary-Margaret Windsor, and Sharon Cermak); and (3) "Teachers' Beliefs and Teaching Beliefs" (James Raths). The second part presents the following observations and reflections: (1) "Clouds Come from New Hampshire": Confronting the Challenge of Philosophical Change in Early Childhood Programs" (Ellen P. Dodge, Barbara N. Dulik, and John A Kulhanek); (2) "Reactions to Visiting the Infant-Toddler and Preschool Centers in Reggio Emilia, Italy" (Tess Bennett); and (3) "Reflections and Impressions from Reggio Emilia: 'It's Not about Art!'" (Nancy B. Herzog). An additional feature article focuses on the Project Approach, "The Combine Project: An Experience in a Dual-Language Classroom" (Rebecca Wilson). The journal concludes with a recent ERIC database search on the Reggio Emilia Approach, and a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (HTH)

Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; Electronic Journals; Kindergarten Children; *Preschool Curriculum; *Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Attitudes; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Visual Motor Functioning


ED448856 PS028787
Title: Young Investigators: The Project Approach in the Early Years. Early Childhood Education Series.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris; Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 145
Publication Date: 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2001

Unlike teacher directed experiences that often do not provide children opportunities to take initiative and responsibility for the work undertaken, the project approach allows in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about. Projects are undertaken by a child, a small group of children within a class, or sometimes by the whole class, as a research effort deliberately focused on finding answers to questions about a topic posed by the children, the teacher, or the teacher working with the children. This book illustrates how all children, even those considered at risk, may benefit from the exploratory and child-initiated nature of project investigations in order to achieve mastery of basic literacy skills. The story of how projects emerge, develop, and culminate is told through a combination of teacher interviews and vivid accounts of classroom practice. Key features of the book are: an emphasis on how teachers solve the practical problems of doing projects with young children, including selecting topics, encouraging children to represent what they are learning, and involving parents; chapters written from practice and that include a plan of action that enables teachers to take their first steps toward following children's interests; photos of children engaged in projects; and a step-by-step guide for teachers to use in facilitating and documenting projects. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1) "Projects and Young Children," including benefits of projects in the early years, and opportunities and constraints of the early years; (2) "Getting Started," including selecting project topics, finding out what children know, and developing questions for investigation; (3) "Developing the Project," including preparing for investigation; (4) "Investigation," including field-site visits, and debriefing; (5) "Concluding the Project," including types of documentation and evaluating the project; (6) "Issues in Guiding Projects with Young Children," including curriculum requirements and standards, involving parents, and using the Project Approach with specific populations; and (7) "The Fire Truck Project." The book includes a project planning journal. Contains 71 references. (HTH)

Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Curriculum Development; Documentation; Early Childhood Education; Elementary School Students; Experiential Learning; Parent Participation; Preschool Children; *Student Projects; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Child Centered Education; Investigative Learning; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED444767 PS028880
Title: The Project Approach Catalog 3 by the Project Approach Study Group.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.
Pages: 143
Publication Date: November 10, 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--General (020); ERIC product (071); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2001

Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the third of its kind, describes and illustrates projects done by children in early childhood and elementary classrooms on topics such as dogs, musical instruments, hens, bicycles, birds, grocery stores, restaurants, and books. Section 1 of the Catalog provides a brief overview of what a project is and offers some suggestions about how to get started. This section also discusses how young children's emerging mapping skills can be strengthened through project work. Section 2 describes some of the strategies used to help teachers and student teachers learn to use the Project Approach. A variety of course structures and support group arrangements are described, and the important role of administrators in supporting teachers' efforts is discussed. The findings of a survey of teachers using the Project Approach are also summarized. Section 3 offers examples of Project Approach efforts that can be accessed on the World Wide Web. Section 4 consists of the summaries of 17 projects, and the Catalog's final section, "Resources for Implementing the Project Approach," includes ERIC Digests, a glossary, recommended book titles, an ERIC bibliography on the Project Approach, information on a Project Approach summer institute and the Projects-L electronic discussion list, and a list of contributors to the Catalog. (LPP)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Administrator Role; Cartography; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; *Discovery Learning; Early Childhood Education; Educational Research; Elementary Education; Group Activities; Higher Education; Instructional Innovation; Internet; *Learning Activities; Map Skills; Problem Solving; *Student Projects; Teacher Education; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED446877 PS029035
Title: The Hairy Head Project.
Author(s) Gallick, Barbara
Pages: 46
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2001

A class of 3- to 6-year-old children in a Midwestern child care center chose to study hair and hairstyling salons as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teacher's reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project are included. (Author)

Descriptors: Cooperative Learning; Day Care; Early Childhood Education; *Experiential Learning; Program Descriptions; *Student Projects; Student Research; Teaching Methods; *Young Children
Identifiers: Hair; Hairstyles; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED446874 PS029032
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Fall 2000.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Pages: 190
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2001

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer-reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. ECRP emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. ECRP also includes articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. The first part of this issue of ECRP contains the following major articles: (1) "Readiness for School: A Survey of State Policies and Definitions" (Gitanjali Saluja, Catherine Scott-Little, and Richard M. Clifford); (2)"Conceptualizing the Professional Role in Early Childhood Centers: Emerging Profiles in Four European Countries" (Pamela Oberhuemer); (3) "Language Development and Science Inquiry: The Head Start on Science and Communication Program" (Evelyn R. Klein, Penny L. Hammrich, Stefanie Bloom, and Anika Ragins); and (4) "Starting Child Care: What Young Children Learn about Relating to Adults in the First Weeks of Starting Child Care" (Carmen Dalli). The Observations and Reflections section contains the article, "Early Childhood Educators and the FIS Grant Program: An Interview with Naomi Karp." The Features section contains an article on the Project Approach: "The Hairy Head Project" (Barbara Gallick). The issue concludes with an ERIC database search on science education and young children, and a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (HTH)

Descriptors: *Early Childhood Education; Early Experience; *Educational Policy; *Electronic Journals; Foreign Countries; *Grants; Language Acquisition; *Science Education; Young Children
Identifiers: Adult Child Relationship; Europe; *Professional Role; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED444768 PS028895
Title: ERIC/EECE Newsletter, 2000.
Author(s) Preece, Laurel, Ed.
Pages: 14
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2001

This document consists of the two 2000 issues of the newsletter of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE). Each issue contains a feature article and one or more short articles on topics related to early childhood education, calls for papers, announcements about Internet resources, news items about and lists of publications from ERIC/EECE, and articles from the Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Child Care. The feature articles are: "Meeting State Standards through the Project Approach" by Ann-Marie Clark (Spring) and "Readiness for School: A Survey of the States" by Gitanjali Saluja, Catherine Scott-Little, and Richard M. Clifford (Fall). (HTH)

Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; Learning Readiness; National Surveys; *School Readiness; *State Standards; Teaching Methods; *Young Children
Identifiers: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary Early Child Educ; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)



ED443537 PS028695
Title: That's Not Fair! A Teacher's Guide to Activism with Young Children.
Author(s) Pelo, Ann; Davidson, Fran
Pages: 180
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Minnesota
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2001

Noting that young children have a natural sense of what is and is not fair, this guide is intended to help teachers develop an anti-bias curriculum using children's sense of fairness to guide them toward social activism. The book provides stories of children's experiences as activists, coupled with first-person accounts of teachers' experiences and reflections. Interspersed throughout are songs for young children about fairness and activism. The chapters are: (1) "Gathering Knowledge for the Journey: Guidebooks and Road Maps," describing the anti-bias approach as a foundation for activism and eliciting reflection regarding activism readiness; (2) "Preparing the Travelers: Fostering Dispositions for Activism in Young Children," focusing on providing learning experiences that lay the foundation for activism projects; (3) "The Journey Begins: An Activism Project Emerges," discussing steps for cultivating an activism project; (4) "Travelers' Aid: Planning and Provisioning for an Activism Project," focusing on teachers' roles in guiding activism projects; (5) "Traveling Companions: Involving Families in Activism Projects," discussing how parents' values can be acknowledged and included, and presenting partnership-building strategies; (6) "The Journey Ends: Concluding an Activism Project," focusing on effective ways to end projects; and (7) "Rest Stops and Other Oases: Finding Support," providing suggestions for supporting activism with young children. The book lists approximately 150 resources and references dealing with anti-bias and diversity education forteachers, and supporting children's dispositions for activism, as well as books for children on activism and on similarities and differences. (KB)

Descriptors: *Activism; Change Strategies; Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Practices; Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; Personality; Preschool Curriculum; *Social Action; Songs; Student Projects; Teacher Role; *Teacher Student Relationship; *Values Education; *Young Children
Identifiers: *Antibias Practices; Fairness; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED438928 PS028346
Title: Otra perspectiva sobre lo que los ninos deben estar aprendiendo (Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning). ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 4
Publication Date: February 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: Spanish
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2000

This Spanish-language ERIC Digest addresses the question of what young children should be learning that will best serve their development and learning in the long term. Two major dimensions of development--normative and dynamic--are explored, and four categories of learning goals are discussed: (1) knowledge; (2) skills; (3) dispositions; and (4) feelings. The view that children learn most effectively when they are engaged in interaction rather than in receptive or passive activities is presented. The digest also discusses the risks of early academic instruction, and the need for a variety of teaching methods and informal learning environments. An intellectually oriented approach in which children work together in small groups to explore their environment is recommended. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Child Development; *Early Childhood Education; Experiential Learning; Learning Activities; Learning Strategies; *Preschool Curriculum; Small Group Instruction; Student Projects; Teaching Methods; Young Children
Identifiers: Academic Pressure; ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED439857 PS028529
Title: Implementing the Project Approach in Part-Time Early Childhood Education Programs.
Author(s) Beneke, Sallee
Pages: 22
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports-- Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000

This paper explores both the benefits and the difficulties of using the Project Approach in part-time early childhood education programs. Teachers of 3 different types of part- time programs share their experiences 1 year after taking a one-credit course in the Project Approach. The teachers' responses are organized by topic as follows: (1) curriculum; (2) assessment; (3) parent involvement; (4) time and space management; (5) lesson plans; and (6) program quality. One year after initial training in the Project Approach, the teachers in these 3 part-day programs remain enthusiastic about the approach and have been fairly consistent in including it in their curriculum. They value the approach because it lends direction to their lesson planning, involves parents, helps with collection of samples for assessment, challenges children with diverse abilities, and provides for a more well-rounded "hands-on" curriculum. (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: *Attendance Patterns; Class Organization; Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; *Documentation; Early Childhood Education; Lesson Plans; Parent Participation; Preschool Curriculum; *Program Descriptions; Program Implementation; *School Schedules; Student Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes; Time Management
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED439856 PS028528
Title: Continuity and Purpose in the Design of Meaningful Project Work.
Author(s) McAninch, Amy C.
Pages: 10
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports-- Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Missouri
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000

This paper discusses two pitfalls in designing project work. The first is a tendency to design projects with little emphasis on how the subject matter might connect to future studies. The second involves processes and goals of project work: all too often the processes proposed for project work serve goals that are nonexistent, weak, or unrelated to one another; or if strong goals exist, they are served by mundane processes. Because the philosophical foundations of project work reside in progressive education, and in particular in the work of Dewey, this paper focuses on the insights his conception of curriculum has for these pitfalls. In the first section of the paper, Dewey's principle of continuity is examined in relation to the first pitfall and the treatment of subject matter in project work. In the remainder of the paper, goals and processes are considered in light of Dewey's discussion of the concept of purpose. Dewey's theoretical analysis of progressive education suggests that subject matter content, processes, and products are all vital to intelligent activity. The paper also points to the fundamental role that the philosophical foundations of education play in the development of curriculum for young children and the difficulty of implementing progressive pedagogy. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Design; Educational Philosophy; *Experiential Learning; Learning Theories; Primary Education; Progressive Education; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods; *Thematic Approach
Identifiers: *Dewey (John); *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED439855 PS028527
Title: Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris; Gronlund, Gaye
Pages: 20
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports-- Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000

Early childhood educators are increasingly concerned about the trend toward national standards and national testing. This article addresses issues of assessment in the early years of schooling, prekindergarten through third grade--a period when active, engaged, hands-on learning is most appropriate. Documentation of a kindergarten project on a turtle is presented to show how a science content standard is attained and how evidence is gathered that demonstrates the attainment of those skills inherent in the standard. The article then presents a framework for helping teachers and administrators to think about standards and the documentation of attainment of standards in ways that are compatible with how young children learn. The documentation procedures are especially compatible with approaches to learning that encourage student initiation and interest, such as the Project Approach. Three drawings, 2 photographs, and 4 figures present works of the children's projects. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: *Academic Standards; Classroom Observation Techniques; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Documentation; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Assessment; Evaluation Criteria; Evaluation Methods; Kindergarten; *National Standards; Primary Education; Science Education; *Student Evaluation; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: National Science Education Standards; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED439854 PS028526
Title: The Project Approach: Meeting the State Standards.
Author(s) Schuler, Dot
Pages: 24
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports-- Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000

This paper suggests that when engaged in project work, children apply most of the skills identified in the age- appropriate state learning standards. To illustrate how good-quality project work addresses the Illinois state learning standards, this paper describes a project conducted by a second-grade class on their community--Grafton, Illinois. The paper focuses on two children who, as part of the Grafton project, studied churches in the community. The paper describes the project's three phases and discusses how, through the process of investigating a topic of interest to them, representing their new knowledge, and sharing their work with others, the children applied the skills identified by the Illinois state learning standards as necessary for early elementary school students. Appended are selected Illinois Learning Standards for Early Elementary Grades, adopted July 1997 by the Illinois State Board of Education. (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: *Academic Standards; Curriculum Development; Documentation; Educational Assessment; *Educational Objectives; *Evaluation Criteria; Grade 2; Performance; Primary Education; *State Standards; Student Evaluation; *Student Projects
Identifiers: *Illinois Learning Standards; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED439849 PS028521
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Spring 2000.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Pages: 188
Publication Date: 2000
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2000

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer- reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. ECRP emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. Also included are articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. The first part of this issue of ECRP contains the following major articles: (1) "The Missing Support Infrastructure in Early Childhood" (J. Gallagher and R. Clifford); (2) "Home- Community Visits during an Era of Reform (1870-1920)" (Navaz Peshotan Bhavnagri and Sue Krolikowski); and (3) "Comparisons in Early Years Education: History, Fact, and Fiction" (Mary Jane Drummond). The second part of the issue contains a special section on the Project Approach. Following an introduction by Lilian Katz, the articles in this section are: (1) "Dynamic Aims: The Use of Long- Term Projects in Early Childhood Classrooms in Light of Dewey's Educational Philosophy" (Michael Glassman and Kimberlee Whaley); (2) "The Project Approach: Meeting the State Standards" (Dot Schuler); (3) "Linking Standards and Engaged Learning in the Early Years" (Judy Harris Helm and Gaye Gronlund); (4) "Continuity and Purpose in the Design of Meaningful Project Work" (Amy McAninch); and (5) "Implementing the Project Approach in Part-Time Early Childhood Education Programs" (Sallee Beneke). The issue concludes with an ERIC database search on policy issues in early childhood education and a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (LPP)

Descriptors: Academic Standards; Change Strategies; Church Role; Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Educational History; Educational Philosophy; *Electronic Journals; Foreign Countries; Home Visits; *Preschool Curriculum; Public Policy; School Schedules; Student Evaluation; Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Dewey (John); Great Britain; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED436298 PS028154
Title: Curriculum Disputes in Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2000

From the academic--or instructivist--perspective, the young child is seen as dependent on adults' instruction in the academic knowledge and skills necessary for a good start for later academic achievement. This perspective is in direct contrast to the active and interactive curriculum assumed by proponents of the constructivist approach. This Digest considers instructivist and constructivist approaches to early childhood education and suggests that attention to children's intellectual development may inadvertently be overlooked by both sides. The Digest considers why the academic approach has grown in popularity, how to distinguish academic from intellectual goals, what research says about constructivism versus instructivism, the importance of children's intellectual development, and teaching methods that support children's intellectual development. Project work is suggested as a way that young children can express their intellectual dispositions in the pursuit of serious topics, apply their emerging and academic skills, and generate high-quality products. The Digest proposes that the early childhood curriculum be structured so that it is focused on at least a trio of goals: (1) social/emotional development; (2) intellectual development; and (3) the acquisition of meaningful and useful academic skills. (Contains 14 references.) (LPP)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Constructivism (Learning); Curriculum Design; Curriculum Development; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Objectives; Educational Strategies; *Intellectual Development; *Preschool Curriculum; Student Centered Curriculum; Student Projects; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Academically Oriented Preschool Program; ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED430735 PS027712
Title: Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 4
Publication Date: June 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1999

This Digest addresses the question of what young children should be learning that will best serve their development and learning in the long term. Two major dimensions of development--normative and dynamic--are explored, and four categories of learning goals are discussed: (1) knowledge; (2) skills; (3) dispositions; and (4) feelings. The view that children learn most effectively when they are engaged in interaction rather than in receptive or passive activities is presented. The digest also discusses the risks of early academic instruction and the need for a variety of teaching methods and informal learning environments. An intellectually oriented approach in which children work together in small groups to explore their environment is recommended. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Child Development; *Early Childhood Education; Elementary School Curriculum; Experiential Learning; Learning Activities; Learning Strategies; Preschool Curriculum; Small Group Instruction; Student Projects; Teaching Methods; Young Children
Identifiers: Academic Pressure; ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED424031 PS027017
Title: Issues in Selecting Topics for Projects. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: October 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1999

Unlike units and themes in the early childhood and primary curriculum, projects are defined as children's in-depth investigations of various topics--ideally, topics worthy of the children's time and energy. As increasing numbers of teachers and school districts incorporate project work into their curriculum, questions have been raised about what to consider when selecting project topics. This Digest addresses the main issues and suggests a list of topic selection criteria. General factors to consider in selecting topics include: (1) characteristics of the particular group of children; (2) the geographic context of the school; (3) the school's wider cultural community; (4) the availability of relevant local resources; (5) the topic's potential contribution to later learning; and (6) the teacher's own knowledge of the topic. Using children's interests as a starting point in topic selection may lead to choosing appropriate topics, but this approach also presents several potential pitfalls. There are also problems associated with choosing exotic or fanciful topics. A topic is appropriate if: (1) it is directly observable in the children's own environments; (2) it is within most children's experiences; (3) first-hand direct investigation is feasible and not potentially dangerous; (4) local resources (field sites and experts) are favorable and readily accessible; (5) it has good potential for representation in a variety of media; (6) parental participation and contributions are likely, and parents can become involved; (7) it is sensitive to the local culture as well as culturally appropriate in general; (8) it is potentially interesting to many of the children, or represents an interest that adults consider worthy of developing in children; (9) it is related to curriculum goals and standards of the school or district; (10) it provides ample opportunity to apply basic skills; and (11) it is optimally specific--not too narrow and not too broad. (LPP)

Descriptors: *Active Learning; Class Activities; Classroom Techniques; *Discovery Learning; Elementary Education; *Experiential Learning; Integrated Curriculum; Learning Activities; Preschool Education; Student Motivation; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Topic Selection


ED394744 PS024310
Title: Teaching Young Children about Native Americans. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Reese, Debbie
Pages: 3
Publication Date: May 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Learner (051); ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1996

Noting that the terms "Native American" and "American Indian" are both legitimately used to refer to the indigenous people of North America, this digest identifies stereotypes about Native Americans that children gain from media portrayals and classroom role playing, and suggests strategies for teachers to use to counter stereotyped portrayals and to reflect cultural diversity among Native Americans. Stereotypes are perpetuated by television, movies, and children's literature when these media depict Native Americans as uncivilized savages or as romanticized heroes. Many teaching materials and children's books present a generalized image of Native American people with little regard for differences among tribes. In their classrooms, teachers can use specific positive strategies to counter these stereotypes and generalized images. Suggested strategies are to: (1) provide knowledge about contemporary Native Americans; (2) prepare units about specific tribes; (3) use books that show contemporary children of all cultures engaged in their usual daily activities; (4) obtain posters that show Native American children in contemporary contexts; (5) use dolls with different skin colors in the dramatic play area; (6) cook ethnic foods; (7) be specific about which tribes use particular items when discussing cultural artifacts; (8) critique a Thanksgiving poster depicting stereotyped pilgrim and Indian figures; and (9) at Thanksgiving, shift the focus away from reenacting the "First Thanksgiving" to items children can be thankful for in their own lives. Besides engaging in these positive practices, teachers can avoid: using over-generalized books and lesson plans; using a "tourist curriculum" that teaches predominantly through celebrations and holidays; presenting sacred activities in trivial ways; and introducing the topic of Native Americans on Columbus Day or at Thanksgiving. (BC)

Descriptors: *American Indian Culture; American Indian History; *American Indians; Books; *Childrens Literature; Classroom Techniques; Cultural Awareness; Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; *Learning Strategies; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Teachers; *Stereotypes; Tribes; Young Children
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Native Americans; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Thanksgiving


ED393608 PS024196
Title: The Contribution of Documentation to the Quality of Early Childhood Education. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: April 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1996

Documentation, in the forms of observation of children and recordkeeping, has long been practiced in many early childhood programs, particularly in the preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Documentation typically includes samples of children's work at several stages of completion; photographs showing work in progress; comments by teachers working with the children; transcriptions of children's discussions; and parents' comments. High-quality documentation of children's work contributes to the quality of early childhood programs in at least six ways. First, documentation enhances children's learning. The processes of preparing and displaying documentaries of children's efforts provides a kind of re-visiting of experience during which new understandings are clarified and strengthened. Second, careful and attractive documentary displays convey to children that their efforts are taken seriously. Third, documentation encourages continuous teacher planning and evaluation of work with children. When teachers and children plan together, activities are likely to be undertaken with greater interest and representational skill than when children plan alone or when teachers are unaware of challenges facing the children. Fourth, documentation fosters parent appreciation and participation. Through learning about the work in which their children are engaged, parents may contribute ideas for activities to teachers and their own time in the classroom. Fifth, teacher research and process awareness is fostered by documentation. As teachers examine and document children's work, their understanding of children's development is deepened in ways not likely to occur from inspecting test results. Sixth, children's learning is made visible through documentation, which provides information about children's progress that cannot be obtained from standardized tests. When children are engaged in absorbing and complex projects, documentation can make a contribution in these six ways. (BC)

Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Early Childhood Education; Parent Participation; *Portfolio Assessment; Preschool Children; *Reggio Emilia Approach; *Student Projects; *Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED389474 PS023972
Title: Encouraging Creativity in Early Childhood Classrooms. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Springate, Kay Wright
Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1996

This digest considers teacher- and child-initiated strategies for enhancing young children's self-expression and creativity. When teachers think about art and creative activities for children, it is important for them to consider that young children: (1) are developmentally capable of classroom experiences which call for (and practice) higher level thinking skills, including analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; (2) need to express ideas through different expressive avenues and symbolic media; (3) learn through meaningful activities in which different subject areas are integrated; and (4) benefit from in-depth exploration and long-term projects. Given what is known about young children's learning and their competence to express their visions of themselves, classrooms and classroom activities can be modified in several ways to support children's emerging creativity. First, class schedules should provide children with unhurried time to explore. Children should not be artificially rotated from one activity to another. Second, children's work spaces should inspire them. Children's work is fostered by a space that has natural light, harmonious colors, and comfortable work areas. Third, teachers can provide children with wonderful collections of resource materials that might be bought, found, or recycled. Fourth, the classroom atmosphere should reflect the adults' encouragement and acceptance of mistakes, risk-taking, innovation, and uniqueness, along with a certain amount of mess, noise, and freedom. In order to create such a climate, teachers must give themselves permission to try artistic activity. Finally, teachers can provide occasions for intense encounters between children and their inner or outer world. Children's best work involves such encounters. (BC)

Descriptors: Art Materials; Class Activities; Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Creative Activities; *Creative Development; *Creative Expression; *Creativity; Early Childhood Education; Reggio Emilia Approach; Teacher Student Relationship; *Young Children
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED380238 PS023152
Title: El Metodo Llamado Proyecto (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: Spanish
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL1995

A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic instruction helps children acquire skills, addresses children's deficiencies, and stresses extrinsic motivation, project work provides opportunities to apply skills, addresses children's proficiencies, and stresses intrinsic motivation. Projects differ from themes, which are broad topics such as "seasons," and units, which consist of preplanned lessons and activities on particular topics. In themes and units, children usually have little role in specifying the questions to be answered as the work proceeds. This is not the case in projects. Activities engaged in during project work include drawing, writing, reading, recording observations, and interviewing experts. Projects can be implemented in three stages. In Phase 1, "Getting Started," the teacher and children select and refine the topic to be studied. Phase 2, "Field Work," consists of investigating, drawing, constructing models, recording, and exploring. Phase 3, "Culminating and Debriefing Events," includes preparing and presenting reports of results. These characteristics of projects are exemplified in a project in which kindergartners collected 31 different types of balls. After collecting the balls, the class examined various characteristics of the balls, such as shape, surface texture, circumference, composition, weight, resistance, and use. This project involved children in a variety of tasks and gave children the opportunity to learn a new vocabulary as their knowledge of a familiar object deepened. (BC)

Descriptors: Activity Units; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; *Group Activities; *Learning Activities; Student Motivation; *Student Participation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Thematic Approach
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED376991 PS022936
Title: Integrate, Don't Isolate! Computers in the Early Childhood Curriculum. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Davis, Bernadette Caruso; Shade, Daniel D.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1995

When computers are relegated to a single room in a school where children use them only occasionally, their potential impact on children's learning is minimized. When computers are integrated into the curriculum and are applied to real problems, however, children gain the ability to use computers as natural tools for learning. For example, when a teacher chooses a topic for an integrated study project, the class will define relevant concepts related to that topic and choose activities to explore those concepts. Sometimes computers will be the most appropriate tool for exploring the concepts. As they work on their project, children can use computer programs to construct stories with pictures, labels, and voice recordings; gather information from CD-ROM encyclopedias; compose and illustrate stories; and write letters to experts. Children can also use microworlds, or programs that help them discover concepts and cause-effect relationships, and serve as a bridge between hands- on experience and abstract learning. Teachers help children learn in computer- enriched classrooms by filling several roles. Initially, teachers serve as instructors to children in the use of computers. Later, as children gain more experience, the teacher's role moves to that of a coach. By using computers themselves, teachers can also serve as models to children Finally, teachers must be critics of computer software, learning to select the best software to enhance children's development. In all cases, teachers must remember that without proper integration of computers into the curriculum, the benefits of technology to children's learning cannot be fully achieved. Contains 12 references. (BC)

Descriptors: Class Activities; Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer Software; *Computer Uses in Education; *Computers; Early Childhood Education; *Integrated Activities; *Integrated Curriculum; *Learning Activities; Microworlds; *Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED368509 PS022331
Title: The Project Approach. ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 3
Publication Date: April 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); ERIC digests in full text (073)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1994

A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic instruction helps children acquire skills, addresses children's deficiencies, and stresses extrinsic motivation, project work provides opportunities to apply skills, addresses children's proficiencies, and stresses intrinsic motivation. Projects differ from themes, which are broad topics such as "seasons," and units, which consist of preplanned lessons and activities on particular topics. In themes and units, children usually have little role in specifying the questions to be answered as the work proceeds. This is not the case in projects. Activities engaged in during project work include drawing, writing, reading, recording observations, and interviewing experts. Projects can be implemented in three stages. In Phase 1, "Getting Started," the teacher and children select and refine the topic to be studied. Phase 2, "Field Work," consists of investigating, drawing, constructing models, recording, and exploring. Phase 3, "Culminating and Debriefing Events," includes preparing and presenting reports of results. These characteristics of projects are exemplified in a project in which kindergartners collected 31 different types of balls. After collecting the balls, the class examined various characteristics of the balls, such as shape, surface texture, circumference, composition, weight, resistance, and use. This project involved children in a variety of tasks and gave children the opportunity to learn a new vocabulary as their knowledge of a familiar object deepened. (BC)

Descriptors: Activity Units; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; *Group Activities; *Learning Activities; Student Motivation; *Student Participation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Thematic Approach
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED436308 PS028181
Title: ERIC/EECE Newsletter, 1999.
Author(s) Preece, Laurel, Ed.
Pages: 14
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2000

This document consists of the two 1999 issues of the newsletter of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE). Each issue contains a feature article and one or more short articles on topics related to early childhood education, calls for papers, announcements about Internet resources, news items about and lists of publications from ERIC/EECE, and articles from the Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Child Care. The feature articles are: "Integrating the Project Approach and Work Sampling" by Sallee Beneke (Spring), and "Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning" by Lilian G. Katz (Fall). (HTH)

Descriptors: Childhood Needs; Classroom Techniques; Cognitive Style; *Day Care; Early Childhood Education; Evaluation Methods; *Student Evaluation; *Young Children
Identifiers: Day Care Quality; ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary Early Child Educ; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED435498 PS028122
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice. An Internet Journal on the Development, Care, and Education of Young Children, Fall 1999.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Pages: 140
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2000

Early Childhood Research & Practice (ECRP), a peer- reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. ECRP emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. ECRP also includes articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. This issue of ECRP contains the following major articles: (1) "Instant Video Revisiting: The Video Camera as a 'Tool of the Mind' for Young Children" (George Forman); (2) "The Role of Religious Beliefs in Early Childhood Education: Christian and Buddhist Preschools in Japan" (Susan Holloway); (3) "What Should Children Learn? Making Choices and Taking Chances" (Rebecca New); (4) "A Comparison of the National Preschool Curricula in Norway and Sweden" (Marit Alvestad and Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson); (5) "Public Factors That Contribute to School Readiness" (Diane Edwards); and (6) "The School Bus Project" (Ruth Harkema). The issue concludes with an ERIC database search on international perspectives on early childhood education and a description of new ERIC/EECE publications and activities, along with general information and links related to the journal. (LPP)

Descriptors: Church Role; Cultural Influences; *Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; *Electronic Journals; Foreign Countries; National Curriculum; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Partnerships in Education; *Preschool Curriculum; Public Policy; School Readiness; Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Italy; Japan; Norway; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Sweden; Video Cameras


ED433146 PS027873
Title: Distinctions between Academic and Intellectual Goals in Early Childhood Education.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 18
Publication Date: September 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2000

Contrasting approaches to early childhood education are evident in the constructivist versus instructivist schools of thought. On one side, the child is seen as active constructor of knowledge and understanding; on the other, the child is dependent on another's instruction in knowledge and skills. This paper explores some of the implications of the traditional dichotomies in the field of early childhood education and raises issues leading to other ways to define the goals of the field. To a large extent both sides of the early childhood curriculum debate may be overlooking other options. In particular, the debate under-emphasizes and under- values a third option: namely, the importance of children's intellectual development. Differences between intellectual and academic goals and activities are outlined: while academic goals address small units of knowledge and skills, intellectual goals address dispositions or habits of mind that include a variety of tendencies to interpret experience. It is reasonable to assume that the major intellectual dispositions are in-born in all children, but that unless the curriculum provides contexts in which the intellectual dispositions can be exercised and strengthened, they may be weakened or even lost. However, a strong academic "instructivist" approach may undermine the disposition to use the very knowledge and skills so intensely instructed. Thus the appropriate curriculum for young children is one that addresses the acquisition of academic skills (for example, how to read) in such a way that the dispositions to use them are also strengthened (for example, liking to read). The paper concludes by describing project work as a context for exercising both intellectual dispositions and academic skills. Contains 30 references. (EV)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Constructivism (Learning); *Early Childhood Education; Educational Needs; *Educational Objectives; *Intellectual Development
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED429685 PS027441
Title: The Hundred Languages of Children Exhibition: A Unique Early Childhood Education Professional Development Program. Final Evaluation Report (September 15 to December 15, 1998).
Author(s) Abramson, Shareen; Huggins, Joyce M.
Pages: 119
Publication Date: February 25, 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; California
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1999

The "Exhibition of the Hundred Languages of Children" (HLC) was organized in the early 1980s by the early childhood schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy to promote the study of their educational methods and to reveal the potential of young children for learning and creative expression. This report details an evaluation of the exhibition and continuing education program held during the exhibition in 1998 at California State University in Fresno, California, "Making Connections to Reggio Emilia and Beyond: An Educational Institute." The institute consisted of four weekend courses taught by leading authorities in early childhood education. Attendees were also able to observe in the Huggins Center, a model training, demonstration, and research center in early childhood education using an exemplary curriculum influenced by the study of the Reggio Approach. The evaluation findings indicated that the HLC exhibition and the program generated an intense and a positive public response throughout the state. Feedback on the exhibit, institute, and tours was exceptionally positive and enthusiastic. The report notes that the program was successful because it provided early childhood education (ECE) training aligned to the mission and goals for ECE in the county offices of education, school districts, and other early childhood education agencies and organizations. The resulting collaboration provided needed financial resources, assisted in publicity efforts, encouraged greater participation of those interested in ECE, and led to greater public awareness of the importance and benefits of ECE. Included in the report are numerous photographs from the exhibit and institute, attendee information, and media information related to the event. (KB)

Descriptors: *Continuing Education; Early Childhood Education; *Faculty Development; *Preschool Teachers; Program Evaluation; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach


ED428893 PS027477
Title: From Themes to Projects.
Author(s) Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 16
Publication Date: 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080); Reports-- Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1999

Many teachers who begin to implement the Project Approach are already familiar with a learning center or theme approach to teaching, but there are some important differences of which to be aware. Noting that projects are especially valuable for children in undertaking in-depth study of real-world topics, this paper presents the reflections of several teachers on their experiences moving from the use of a theme approach in their classrooms to using the Project Approach. The paper is presented in two parts. The first part describes how a project on shoes undertaken by a kindergarten class might unfold, based on a synthesis of several teachers' accounts of how they proceeded with such a project. The description serves as an example of the potential of a project for the in-depth study of a topic. The second part of the paper is a commentary, interwoven with the narrative description of the project, and draws on the work of different teachers who have also carried out projects on the topic of shoes. This commentary, which features the different possibilities that may occur for teachers in different locations and working with different ages of children, also discusses a few of the challenges commonly experienced by teachers beginning to do projects, particularly the distinctions between projects and themes. (EV)

Descriptors: Experiential Learning; Instructional Innovation; Kindergarten; Primary Education; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods; *Thematic Approach
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED428886 PS027470
Title: Early Childhood Research & Practice, An Internet Journal on the Development, Care and Education of Young Children, Spring 1999.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.
Pages: 178
Publication Date: February 27, 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC08 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1999

Early Childhood Research and Practice (ECRP), a peer- reviewed, Internet-only journal sponsored by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE), covers topics related to the development, care, and education of children from birth to approximately age 8. ECRP emphasizes articles reporting on practice-related research and on issues related to practice, parent participation, and policy. ECRP also includes articles and essays that present opinions and reflections. This inaugural issue of ECRP includes a brief introductory editorial (Katz and Rothenberg). The following major articles: (1) "Children's Social Behavior in Relation to Participation in Mixed-Age or Same-Age Classrooms" (28 pages) (McClellan and Kinsey); (2) "Collaborative Course Development in Early Childhood Special Education through Distance Learning" (21 pages) (Hains, Conceicao-Runlee, Caro, and Marchel); (3) "The Restructuring of an Urban Elementary School: Lessons Learned as a Professional Development School Liaison" (9 pages) (Davis); (4) "A Neophyte Early Childhood Teacher's Developing Relationships with Parents: An Ecological Perspective" (15 pages) (Sumsion); (5) "Editing: Permission to Start Wrong" (9 pages) (Clemens); and (6) "International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Lessons from My Travels" (12 pages) (Katz); (7) "Writing for Electronic Journals" (12 pages) (Cesarone); (8) "From Themes to Projects" (15 pages) (Chard); and (9) "ERIC Database Citations on Topics Discussed in This Issue" (48 pages). A description of new products available from ERIC/EECE is included, along with general information and links related to the journal. (EV)

Descriptors: Child Development; Cultural Context; Distance Education; *Early Childhood Education; Editing; *Educational Practices; *Educational Research; *Electronic Journals; Internet; Mixed Age Grouping; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Professional Development Schools; Scholarly Journals; Student Projects; Teaching Methods; Theory Practice Relationship; Writing for Publication
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED425022 PS027208
Title: ERIC/EECE Newsletter. 1994-1998.
Author(s) Cesarone, Bernard, Ed.; Preece, Laurel, Ed.
Pages: 63
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Serials (022); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1999

This document consists of 10 issues (created over 5 years) of the newsletter of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC/EECE). Each issue contains a feature article and one or more short articles on topics related to early childhood education, calls for papers, announcements about Internet resources, news items about and lists of publications from ERIC/EECE, or articles about child care from the Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Child Care. The feature articles discuss: (1) the project approach; (2) risks of rewards for children; (3) adapting ideas from the Reggio Emilia (Italy) approach to preschool education in the United States; (4) fostering resilience in children; (5) resolving differences between teachers and parents; (6) male involvement in early childhood programs; (7) applying child development knowledge; (8) implications of research for practice; (9) television violence; and (10) selecting topics for project work. Articles related to child care concern establishing family-centered child care programs, improving the quality and availability of child care, inclusion, quality in child care, and intergenerational child care. Additional short articles address topics of: (1) violence and young children; (2) integrated curriculum; (3) Hispanic parent involvement in ECE; (4) documentation and quality in ECE; (5) transitions to middle school; and (6) reports from a kindergarten study. (BC)

Descriptors: *Child Development; *Day Care; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Quality; Fathers; Internet; Newsletters; Parent Participation; Research and Development; Resilience (Personality); Rewards; Television Viewing; Theory Practice Relationship; *Violence
Identifiers: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary Early Child Educ; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach


ED424036 PS027048
Title: The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.
Pages: 146
Publication Date: November 20, 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Collected works--Proceedings (021); Guides--Non-classroom (055); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1999

Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the second of its kind, describes and illustrates 13 projects done by children in early childhood and elementary classrooms on topics such as: trees, paper, playgrounds, building, potatoes, balls, cars, the vet, the hospital, shoes, water, and baby blankets. In addition to the project descriptions, several articles address a variety of issues of common concern to teachers implementing the Project Approach. These include the phases of project work, project topic selection, the value of drawing in projects, introducing investigation skills with a mini- project, involving special needs students in projects, engaged learning and standards of work, and helping students at various levels of professional training to learn how to implement the Project Approach. Sections on research and implementation of the Project Approach in Canada, and on the Internet and the Project Approach (including listserv discussions), are also included. The Catalog's final section, "Resources for Implementing the Project Approach," includes four ERIC Digests, a glossary, a list of recommended books, an ERIC bibliography on the Project Approach, information on a Project Approach summer institute, and a list of contributors to the Catalog. (EV)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; *Discovery Learning; Early Childhood Education; Educational Research; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Freehand Drawing; Group Activities; Higher Education; Instructional Innovation; Internet; *Learning Activities; Problem Solving; Special Needs Students; *Student Projects; Teacher Education; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Canada; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); University of Alberta (Canada)


ED421217 PS026639
Title: Windows on Learning: Documenting Young Children's Work. Early Childhood Education Series.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris; Beneke, Sallee; Steinheimer, Kathy
Pages: 203
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC1998

This book grew out of the experiences of three teachers as they learned to document young children's work in their respective schools. Part I of this book enables readers to learn about documentation. Chapter 1 provides the rationale for the study of documentation, and chapter 2 explains the windows framework that guided the teachers in thinking about documentation. Chapter 3 presents the web of documentation types. Chapters 4-8 provide an in-depth exploration of the variety of documentation types, with samples collected by the teachers. The children's work and teacher notes illustrate what children learned and how they developed through use of the project approach. Part II of the book explores learning how to document children's work. Chapters 9-11 explain how to collect, organize, and share documentation with children, other teachers, parents, and the community. Throughout the book and especially in chapter 10, teacher reflections illustrate how the teachers used documentation to inform teaching and to make decisions. Chapter 11 discusses how documentation as described in this book relates to recommendations and requirements for assessment. Part III of the book explores the documentation of one project, "Our Mail Project," which was completed by a class of 3- and 4-year-olds over a 6-week period. The teacher's documentation and the children's documentation show the progress of the project as it grew, expanded, and concluded. The complete documentation of this project illustrates how a project develops, how documentation can be integrated into all areas of development, how documentation informs teaching, and how documentation enables others to see how much learning took place in the classroom. (Author/LPP)

Descriptors: Active Learning; *Classroom Techniques; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; Discovery Learning; *Documentation; *Early Childhood Education; Experiential Learning; Group Activities; Instructional Innovation; Learning Activities; Portfolios (Background Materials); Problem Solving; Reflective Teaching; Student Evaluation; *Student Projects; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach; Self Reflection; Webbing (Thematic)


ED420363 PS025826
Title: The Project Approach: Developing Curriculum with Children. Practical Guide 2.
Author(s) Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 64
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
Journal Announcement: RIENOV1998

This guide, a complement to "Project Approach: Developing the Basic Framework," was written to clarify particular structural features of good project work. The guide's introduction provides background information on the philosophy and methods of the Project Approach. The core of the book is divided into four parts. The first three parts each cover one of the phases of the Project Approach: getting started, fieldwork, and culminating event. Each of these parts is organized according to the five structural features of the approach (discussions, fieldwork, representation, investigation, display). Also common to all three parts is the incorporation of case study examples. The parts are: (1) "Getting Started (Phase 1)," which discusses preparation for the project and design and planning work; (2) "Developing the Project Work (Phase 2)," which discusses conducting fieldwork and implementation and development work; and (3) "Concluding the Project (Phase 3)," which discusses debriefing the learning and reviewing and sharing. The fourth part of the guide explores "Classroom Organization and Management." (EV)

Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Curriculum Design; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; *Student Centered Curriculum; *Student Projects; Teaching Guides; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED420362 PS025825
Title: The Project Approach: Developing the Basic Framework. Practical Guide 1.
Author(s) Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 64
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
Journal Announcement: RIENOV1998

This guide is designed to offer teachers and school administrators a rationale for the Project Approach, a description of the practical implications of its implementation, and ways of integrating parts of the approach with other ways of teaching. The guide is divided into two sections. Section 1, "Reviewing Today's Classroom Practices," examines issues as they relate to children and learning. Chapter 1, "The Learner," gives an account of children's learning that can form a useful basis for planning and evaluating progress. Chapter 2, "The Instruction," presents effective teaching and classroom management techniques, and Chapter 3, "The Learning Environment," examines the teacher's role in managing an environment where a variety of different activities are in progress. Chapter 4, "The Content," offers a detailed comparison between topics and themes, units and projects, and a step-by-step approach to creating a project topic with children. Section 2 details "Understanding the Project Approach." Chapter 5, "Phases of Project Work," provides a walk-through of the three phases (getting started, fieldwork, culminating event), with an outline of what each phase has to offer and how they differ from one another. Chapter 6, "Children's Work: Processes and Products," gives a detailed description of children at work on projects. Chapter 7, "Evaluation and Assessment," makes a distinction between the kinds of learning that can be assessed in the different parts of the programs, and chapter 8, "The Roles of Teachers, Students, and Parents," looks at how parents can be better informed about their children's learning and more involved in their progress both in school and at home. (EV)

Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Learning Processes; Parent Participation; Student Evaluation; *Student Projects; Teaching Guides; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED413036 PS023951
Title: Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: An Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education.
Author(s) Cadwell, Louise Boyd
Pages: 160
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1998

This book is a collection of stories describing the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, based on the author's internship in the Italian preschools and a 4-year adaptation effort in one American school. The book's prologue describes the author's work before using the Reggio Emilia approach, the history of Reggio Emilia, the fundamentals of the approach, and the College School of Webster Groves, Missouri where the approach was adapted to a U.S. setting. Chapter 1, "The Journey," details the initial exposure to the Reggio approach, securing an internship, and typical days in the Diana School in Italy. Chapter 2, "The Pleasures and Power of Playing with Materials," discusses the variety of materials available to students and tells stories describing projects children use to build an expanding awareness and understanding of the natural world. Chapter 3, "The Children and the Trees," describes how Reggio Emilia educators define and develop projects, and conveys the story of the children's study of trees and plants. Chapter 4, "Returning Home to St. Louis," describes the move to St. Louis to adapt the Reggio Approach for use in the College School, the importance of spoken language and conversations with children, and the use of visual arts. Chapter 5, "Transforming Space, Time, and Relations," deals with structural and other changes in the preschool space and working with colleagues and parents. Chapter 6, "The Children and the Garden," describes a project on plants which extended from preschool through kindergarten, conversations around the project and grow table designs, children's journals, and sculptures. (Contains 46 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Childrens Art; Childrens Writing; Classroom Design; *Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; *Educational Innovation; Foreign Countries; Instructional Materials; Journal Writing; Language Skills; Learning Activities; Personal Narratives; Plants (Botany); Teacher Student Relationship; *Teaching Methods; Visual Arts; Young Children
Identifiers: Italy (Reggio Emilia); Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach


ED407188 PS025523
Title: SheJi HuoDong JiaoFa (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 7
Publication Date: March 1997
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: Chinese
Document Type: ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1997

A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic instruction helps children acquire skills, addresses children's deficiencies, and stresses extrinsic motivation, project work provides opportunities to apply skills, addresses children's proficiencies, and stresses intrinsic motivation. Projects differ from themes, which are broad topics such as "seasons," and units, which consist of preplanned lessons and activities on particular topics. In themes and units, children usually have little role in specifying the questions to be answered as the work proceeds. This is not the case in projects. Activities engaged in during project work include drawing, writing, reading, recording observations, and interviewing experts. Projects can be implemented in three stages. In Phase 1, "Getting Started," the teacher and children select and refine the topic to be studied. Phase 2, "Field Work," consists of investigating, drawing, constructing models, recording, and exploring. Phase 3, "Culminating and Debriefing Events," includes preparing and presenting reports of results. These characteristics of projects are exemplified in a project in which kindergartners collected 31 different types of balls. After collecting the balls, the class examined various characteristics of the balls, such as shape, surface texture, circumference, composition, weight, resistance, and use. This project involved children in a variety of tasks and gave children the opportunity to learn a new vocabulary as their knowledge of a familiar object deepened. (BC)

Descriptors: Activity Units; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education; *Group Activities; *Learning Activities; Student Motivation; *Student Participation; *Teacher Student Relationship; Thematic Approach
Identifiers: ERIC Digests; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED407074 PS025116
Title: Engaging Children's Minds: The Project Approach.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.
Pages: 189
Publication Date: 1989
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1997

A project is an in-depth study of a particular topic that one or more children undertake, and consists of exploring the topic or theme such as "building a house" over a period of days or weeks. This book introduces the project approach and suggests applications and examples of this approach in action. Chapters are: (1) "Profile of the Project Approach," defining the approach and describing how project work complements other parts of the preschool curriculum; (2) "Research and Principles of Practice," discussing the conceptual basis for a project approach; (3) "Project Work in Action," illustrating the variety of project work; (4) "Features of the Project Approach," presenting guidelines for project topic selection, types of project activities, choices children make in project work, the teacher's role, and the three phases of project work; (5) "Teacher Planning," focusing on selecting a topic, making a topic web, deciding on a project's scope, and using five criteria for selecting and focusing on project topics; (6) "Getting Projects Started: Phase I," detailing ways to engage children's interest, initiate the introductory discussion, organize activities for early stages of extended projects, and involve parents; (7) "Projects in Progress: Phase II," discussing ways to maximize children's learning, interest, and motivation; (8) "Consolidating Projects: Phase III," presenting various approaches to concluding a project, such as making presentations to other classes or evaluating the project; and (9) "The Project Approach in Perspective," identifying the project approach as a complement and supplement to other aspects of the curriculum while giving teachers the opportunity to attend equally to social and intellectual development. Appendices present project descriptions, project guidelines, and a checklist for recording Missouri State Competencies applied in the course of project work. Contains about 140 references. (KDFB)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Child Development; Class Activities; Early Childhood Education; Instructional Innovation; *Learning Activities; Parent Participation; Primary Education; Student Motivation; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Methods; *Young Children
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Task Engagement


ED402068 PS024840
Title: The Project Approach Catalog.
Author(s) Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.
Pages: 90
Publication Date: November 22, 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: ERIC product (071); Reference materials-- Directories/Catalogs (132)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR1997

A project is an extended, in-depth investigation of a topic, ideally one worthy of children's attention and energy. This catalog, prepared for an annual meeting of the National Association for the Education of Young Children, combines articles explaining the project approach in the classroom with summaries of projects displayed at the meeting. It also contains several ERIC/EECE digests relevant to the project approach. The introductory articles cover such topics as the importance of projects, the project approach in action, documenting projects, frequently asked questions about project work, incorporating the project approach into a traditional curriculum, and results of a brainstorming session among teachers beginning project work. Projects presented at the annual meeting include those on water, rocks, houses, building construction, newspaper, and bicycles. The ERIC digests included in the catalog discuss integrating computers in the early childhood classroom, the benefits of mixed-age grouping, encouraging creativity, the contribution of documentation to the quality of early childhood education, problem solving, Reggio Emilia, and resource rooms for children. Information on a projects web site, project approach institutes, other ERIC texts on the project approach, and how to use the ERIC system is also included. (EV)

Descriptors: Active Learning; Cooperative Learning; Creative Development; Discovery Learning; Elementary Education; *Experiential Learning; Group Activities; Instructional Innovation; Learning Activities; Problem Solving; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard); Reggio Emilia Approach


ED399066 PS024500
Title: Children as Learners: A Developmental Approach.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.
Pages: 15
Publication Date: July 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN1997

This paper outlines 22 principles of practice that serve as criteria by which to judge the developmental appropriateness of an early childhood curriculum. The principles lead to the assertion that young children as learners are greatly supported when a "project approach" is used--e.g., when their early childhood education experience includes opportunities for investigations of phenomena in their environments. Criteria of appropriateness of curricula and pedagogy are discussed, along with explanations of the developmental approach to curricula and teaching practices. The 22 principles of a project or developmental approach include: (1) taking into account those aspects of learning that change with the age and experience of the learner; (2) taking into account two equally important dimensions of development--normative and dynamic; and (3) children's dispositions to be interested, engaged, absorbed, and involved in intellectual effort are strengthened when they have ample opportunity to work on a topic or investigations over a period of time. (BGC)

Descriptors: Child Development; Cognitive Style; Cooperation; Curriculum; *Curriculum Design; *Curriculum Development; Early Childhood Education; Educational Environment; Foreign Countries; Learning Processes; Learning Strategies; *Learning Theories; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: *Developmental Theory; Developmentally Appropriate Programs; *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED394714 PS024166
Title: Creating the Multi-Age Classroom: Organization, Curriculum, Instructional Strategies and Assessment for the Multi-Age Classroom Plus Considerations for Getting Started and Techniques for Classroom Management. Revised Edition.
Author(s) Banks, Janet Caudill
Pages: 145
Publication Date: April 1995
ISBN: 1-886753-03-2
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Washington
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1996
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners

Intended for teachers who have asked for information on how to manage a multi-age classroom, this book outlines the ideal classroom as it exists when all of the multi- age components are put in place. Opening sections of the guide discuss creating the multi-age classroom, and the advantages and principles of multi-age instruction. The next sections provide overviews of classroom organization, instructional strategies, curriculum, assessment and evaluation, and getting started. Each of these sections includes the overview, results of the changes brought about by multi-age instruction, and advice from the experts. Additional sections address scheduling, grouping strategies, working with Bloom's taxonomy, projects for active learners, using novels for literature instruction, and helping children discover themselves and others. Separate sections address the management of mathematics, authentic assessment and evaluation, and student record forms, with sample forms included. A glossary of terms for multi-age instruction and a listing that includes references, resources, and credits conclude the book. (DR)

Descriptors: Classroom Environment; Classroom Techniques; *Curriculum; *Educational Strategies; Elementary Education; Evaluation; *Grouping (Instructional Purposes); Language Arts; Literature; *Mixed Age Grouping; Novels; *Teaching Methods; Time Factors (Learning)
Identifiers: *Authentic Assessment; Blooms Taxonomy; Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED392513 PS023527
Title: Will a Project Approach to Learning Provide Children Opportunities To Do Purposeful Reading and Writing, as Well as Provide Opportunities for Authentic Learning in Other Curriculum Areas?
Author(s) Bryson, Eileen
Pages: 21
Publication Date: 1994
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Alaska
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL1996

The project approach to learning includes a focus on in- depth study of a topic, along with teaching style, learning style, and theme. In contrast to a thematic approach, the project approach encourages children to be actively engaged in their own studies, with teachers acting as guides and facilitators. In the project approach, students use subject matter areas as tools in their chosen investigations. Katz and Chard's "Engaging Children's Minds: The Project Approach" is drawn upon as a starting point for this case study. First grade students were involved in two units: (1) a thematic unit involving dinosaurs; and (2) a project-based unit about frogs. Comparisons were made between the two experiences. Particular attention was given to children's enthusiasm for the work; the reading, writing, and learning in other curriculum areas; and analysis of differences in the two learning approaches. The results showed that children exhibited greater enthusiasm for the collaborative work in the project approach than in the thematic unit. Children were also more involved in reading and research in the frog project than the dinosaur unit, and made many more decisions about their own learning. Children who use these skills in meaningful, project-based situations maintain positive outlooks toward learning, effecting learning in later years. Contains 11 references. (BGC)

Descriptors: Case Studies; Communication Skills; Comparative Analysis; Cooperation; *Curriculum Design; Dramatic Play; Early Childhood Education; Integrated Curriculum; Interpersonal Competence; Reading Ability; Reading Skills; *Student Projects; Teaching Methods; *Thematic Approach; Verbal Communication; Writing (Composition); Writing Skills; Young Children
Identifiers: Collaborative Learning; Katz (Lilian G); *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


ED381264 PS023164
Title: Early Childhood Education and Beyond: Can We Adapt the Practices and Philosophies from the Preschools of Reggio Emilia, Italy into Our Elementary Schools in America?
Author(s) Firlik, Russell
Pages: 14
Publication Date: March 1995
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1995

The model presented by the preschools in Reggio Emilia, Italy, is one of cooperation and collaborations among teachers, parents, and children; curriculum based on the "project approach," and constructivist learning philosophy, which states that children construct their knowledge and values as a result of interactions with and action on the physical and social world. American early childhood educators and researchers have expressed notable interest in the Reggio Emilia programs; however differences in the American and European thinking attitudes within a macro society, and cultural conventions make adapting or transporting methods with European roots difficult at best. An example of differences in thinking would be the way Americans have discarded European traditions of evaluating ideas and systems of thought according to "intellectual consistency" or aesthetic appeal. Cultural differences include: individualism versus collectivism; the American emphasis on "equalitarianism"; forms of activity of doing rather than being; the separation of work and play; and the dichotomy between competition and affiliation. Several elements need to be in place in American schools before any successful transitions from preschool to elementary school can take place, including preparation of children for such transitions, involvement of parents in each step of the process, and continuity of program through developmentally diverse and age/individual appropriate curricula. Although the Reggio Emilia schools do not have administrators or head teachers, their programs support the administrator's practical role in promoting development. Administrators must promote teachers and children to be curriculum makers; invite parents to be part of the classroom; allow time for observing the project process; allow planning time for teachers; and encourage and support practitioners by giving them time to develop. Contains nine references. (HTH)

Descriptors: Administrator Role; Comparative Analysis; Constructivism (Learning); *Cultural Differences; Educational Attitudes; Elementary Education; Parent Participation; Preschool Education; School Readiness; *Teaching Methods
Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs; Project Approach (Katz and Chard); *Reggio Emilia Approach


ED358921 PS021374
Title: Early Childhood Curriculum Resource Handbook. A Practical Guide for Teaching Early Childhood (Pre-K-3).
Author(s) Hendrick, Joanne, Ed.; And Others
Pages: 420
Publication Date: 1993
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIENOV1993

This guide provides curriculum developers, education faculty, veteran teachers, and student teachers with basic information on the background of early childhood curriculum, as well as current information on publications, standards, and special materials for early childhood classrooms. Following an introduction, the material is presented in 14 chapters by different contributors. Chapter 1 discusses the history and development of present-day curriculum and the directions it is taking. Chapter 2 is a practical guide to creating or revising an early childhood curriculum. Funding sources for curriculum projects are listed in chapter 3, and chapter 4 outlines the content of integrated early childhood education. Chapter 5 describes state guidelines for early childhood education, and chapter 6 lists department of education addresses and publication titles for each state. Classroom assessment is the focus of chapter 7, and chapter 8 consists of annotated lists of curriculum guides for prekindergarten through grade three. Chapter 9 discusses the project approach in early childhood curriculum. Chapter 10 covers trade books, and chapter 11 lists sources of textbooks, software, videos, and other curriculum materials. Chapter 12 lists textbooks and materials adopted by New Mexico and West Virginia, two states with policies specific to the adoption of textbooks in early childhood education. Chapter 13 provides an index to reviews of early childhood textbooks and supplementary materials. Chapter 14 lists subscribers of the Kraus Development Library, a source of curriculum guides in early childhood education. A reference list is provided with some of the chapters. The appendix reprints sections of two exemplary curriculum guides. (TJQ)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; *Curriculum Guides; *Early Childhood Education; Financial Support; *Instructional Development; *Instructional Materials; Integrated Curriculum; Media Selection; Reading Material Selection; *Resource Materials; State Curriculum Guides; State Departments of Education; Student Evaluation; Textbook Selection
Identifiers: Project Approach (Katz and Chard); State Level Textbook Adoption


ED340518 PS020272
Title: The Project Approach.
Author(s) Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia D.
Pages: 27
Publication Date: February 1992
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Reports- -Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY1992

This document proposes the project approach as one element of early childhood education that can function in a complementary relationship to other aspects of the early childhood curriculum. The term "project" is defined as an extended investigation of a topic that is of interest to participating children and judged worthy of attention by their teachers. Projects involve the application of a variety of intellectual, academic, and social skills and competencies. The project approach builds self-confidence, encourages creativity and other dispositions, and offers opportunities for children and parents to work closely together in support of the school program. The theoretical rationale for the project approach is based both on a specific view of the main goals of education and on a developmental approach to implementing those goals. The goals are: (1) the construction and acquisition of worthwhile knowledge; (2) the development of a wide variety of basic intellectual and social skills; (3) the strengthening of desirable dispositions; and (4) the engendering of positive feelings in children about themselves as learners and as participants in group endeavors. Each of these goals is defined, and the principles of practice they imply are then discussed in terms of what is understood about young children's development and learning. Guidelines for implementing project work are provided and a model of a specific project is presented. (SH)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Design; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Principles; *Educational Theories; Experiential Learning; Instructional Innovation; Integrated Curriculum; Learning Activities; Skill Development; *Student Projects; Teacher Role; *Teaching Methods; *Thematic Approach
Identifiers: *Project Approach (Katz and Chard)


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