Kindergarten Entry Skills
Nancy McEntire
2001 (Last updated September 2007)

What skills are considered necessary for a child when entering kindergarten? Why do these vary in different locations?

Most school districts apply a chronological age and a residency requirement for eligibility for kindergarten admission. However, most studies show that chronological age is not the only factor in a child's adjustment to kindergarten. Readiness for kindergarten depends on the level of social, perceptual, motor, and language development expected by the teacher. 

The following table shows the importance of various kindergarten entry factors as rated by kindergarten teachers.


Table 49-Percentage of kindergarten teachers and parents indicating the importance of various factors for kindergarten readiness, by school type: Fall 1998.

Teacher and parent perception of student skills

Perception of importance for public school children

Perception of importance for private school children

Not important

Not very important

Somewhat important

Very important

Essential

Not important

Not very important

Somewhat important

Very important

Essential

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Kindergarten teachers[1]

Can count to 20 or more

12 (0.7)

38 (1.3)

36 (1.2)

11 (0.7)

2 (0.3)

10 (2.0)

37 (3.1)

34 (3.0)

12 (2.0)

6 (2.3)

Knows most of the alphabet

9 (0.7)

30 (1.2)

43 (1.2)

14 (0.9)

4 (0.5)

6 (1.4)

26 (2.8)

41 (2.7)

19 (2.6)

8 (2.3)

Takes turns and shares

(\2\) (0.1)

1 (0.2)

25 (1.1)

58 (1.4)

16 (1.0)

(\2\) (0.3)

1 (0.4)

25 (2.5)

58 (3.2)

16 (2.4)

Sits still and pays attention

1 (0.2)

4 (0.4)

36 (1.4)

47 (1.3)

13 (0.8)

1 (0.5)

3 (1.1)

35 (3.8)

52 (3.1)

10 (2.7)

Is able to use pencils and paint brushes

4 (0.5)

14 (0.9)

47 (1.3)

29 (1.5)

6 (0.5)

5 (1.4)

12 (2.2)

42 (3.1)

32 (3.3)

9 (2.5)

 

Kindergarten parents[3]

Can count to 20 or more

1 (0.1)

6 (0.3)

30 (0.6)

46 (0.7)

17 (0.4)

2 (0.2)

9 (0.6)

33 (1.0)

35 (1.1)

21 (1.0)

Knows most of the alphabet

1 (0.1)

4 (0.3)

25 (0.6)

51 (0.8)

19 (0.4)

1 (0.2)

7 (0.6)

29 (1.1)

41 (1.0)

22 (1.0)

Takes turns and shares

(\2\) (0.0)

(\2\) (0.0)

5 (0.2)

63 (0.6)

32 (0.6)

(\2\) (0.0)

(\2\) (0.1)

7 (0.5)

55 (1.0)

38 (0.9)

Sits still and pays attention

(\2\) (0.0)

1 (0.1)

14 (0.5)

60 (0.6)

25 (0.5)

(\2\) (0.1)

2 (0.3)

22 (1.1)

51 (0.9)

25 (0.8)

Is able to use pencils and paint brushes

(\2\) (0.1)

2 (0.2)

23 (0.5)

53 (0.7)

21 (0.4)

(\2\) (0.1)

3 (0.4)

27 (1.0)

43 (1.1)

26 (0.9)

[1] Estimates pertaining to teachers are based on the responses of a nationally representative sample of kindergarten teachers.
[2] Less than .5 percent.
[3] Estimates pertaining to parents are based on the responses of a nationally representative sample of kindergarten children's parents.

NOTE: Standard errors appear in parentheses. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study,
Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, Public-Use Base-Year File. (This table was prepared February 2003.)


The skills needed also depend on the nature of the curriculum, especially the extent to which it is focused on academic instruction, and expectations of what is to be achieved by the end of the program. Different approaches to reading and writing, for example, might make different demands on a young child. A child may be ready for one type of instructional program but not another.

A further issue is that of the expectations of the teachers and school systems for what the child will accomplish by the end of kindergarten. As expectations become more academic and assessments more formal (for example, standardized tests that compare children to a national sample of kindergarten children), pressure on the child increases. Parents sometimes hold their children out a year past the date they are first eligible for kindergarten in the belief that beginning school at an older age will give their child an advantage. This practice, known as "redshirting," may also increase the teacher's expectations for all students (Saluja et al., 2000).

What social skills will ease a child's entry into kindergarten?

Kindergarten teachers' expectations of beginning kindergarten students vary. They may include the social and emotional ability to function within a cooperative learning environment, in which the child works both independently and as a member of small and large groups. Children may be expected to attend to and finish a task; to listen to a story in a group; to follow two or three oral directions; to take turns and share; to care for their personal needs, such as going to the toilet and putting on outdoor clothes; and to care for their belongings. They may also be expected to follow rules, respect the property of others, and work within the time and space constraints of the school program (Peth-Pierce, 2000).

What cognitive and motor skills are generally expected by kindergarten teachers?

Teachers expect children to develop certain physical skills before they enter kindergarten. Children are expected to have mastered many large muscle skills, such as walking, running, and climbing, and fine motor skills requiring eye-hand coordination, such as use of a pencil, crayons, or scissors. Some may expect the child to be able to print his or her own name.

Teachers may assume children can see and hear when objects or sounds are alike or different. Many children will learn the names and sounds of letters as well as the names and quantities of numerals before or during kindergarten.

Children are expected to have developed the concepts of "same" and "different" so that they can sort objects into groups that share a similar characteristic, such as "all are red" or "all are something you can wear." Usually, the kindergarten teacher expects the children to recognize their own names in writing, and to name colors, shapes, and sizes. Children may be expected to know their own address and telephone number.

Most 5-year-olds can express themselves fluently with a variety of words and can understand an even larger variety of words used in conversations and stories. They may be expected to be able to retell a simple story in their own words and understand that words are read from left to right (Florida Center for Parent Involvement, 1999).

Sources

Florida Center for Parent Involvement. (1999). 80 skills that help to ease kids' transition into kindergarten [Online]. Available: http://www.saratogausd.org/index.php/forms-flyers/doc_download/
172-80-skills-that-help-ease-kids-transition-into-kindergarten

National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Digest of Educational Statistics 2000 [Online]. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol_3/3_1/q6_1.asp

Peth-Pierce, Robin. (2000). A good beginning: Sending America's children to school with the social and emotional competence they need to succeed [Online]. Available:
http://casel.org/publications/good-beginning

Saluja, Gitanjali; Scott-Little, Catherine; & Clifford, Richard M. (2000). Readiness for school: A survey of state policies and definitions. Early Childhood Research & Practice [Online], 2(2). Available:
http://ecrp.illinois.edu/v2n2/saluja.html

Web Resources

School Readiness: a Position Statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)
http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSREADY98.PDF

Parents' Reports of the School Readiness of Young Children from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2007
http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2008/2008051.pdf

Getting Ready for Kindergarten
This tip sheet for parents is from the Illinois Early Learning Project.
http://www.illinoisearlylearning.org/tipsheets/readykindergarten.htm

Starting Kindergarten? Help Make It a Good Experience!
This tip sheet for parents is from the Illinois Early Learning Project.
http://www.illinoisearlylearning.org/tipsheets/startingkinder.htm

Development of a Comprehensive Community Assessment of School Readiness
by David A. Murphey and Catherine E. Burns
http://ecrp.illinois.edu/v4n2/murphey.html

Entering Kindergarten: A Portrait of American Children When They Begin School.
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001035.pdf

Entering Kindergarten: Findings from The Condition of Education 2000
This essay from The Condition of Education 2000 summarizes information from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 on the skills and knowledge children possess when they enter school, and their social skills and interest in learning. Children who entered kindergarten at different ages and who are at risk of not succeeding in school are compared in these areas.
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2001035

Readiness: Children and Schools
http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/eecearchive/digests/1991/katz91.html

Self-Regulation and School Readiness
http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/eecearchive/digests/2003/blair03.html

Young Children's Emotional Development and School Readiness
http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/eecearchive/digests/2003/raver03.html

Table 49. Percentage of kindergarten teachers and parents indicating the importance of various factors for kindergarten readiness, by school type: Fall 1998
http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d01/dt049.asp

Readiness for Kindergarten: Parent and Teacher Beliefs
Two surveys sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics and conducted in the spring of 1993 collected information on parent and teacher beliefs about characteristics important to a child's readiness for kindergarten.
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=93257

School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status
http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/eecearchive/digests/1995/zill95.html

What Should Be Learned in Kindergarten?
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content/learned.kindergarten.html

ReadyWeb
This Web site addresses the topic of school readiness, both the readiness of children for school and the readiness of schools for children. Information presented includes the full text of ERIC Digests and of publications by the U.S. Department of Education on school readiness, and bibliographies on school readiness.
http://readyweb.crc.illinois.edu/

Helping Your Preschool Child
With activities for children from infancy through age 5.
http://www2.ed.gov/parents/earlychild/ready/preschool/part.html

Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers
This is an online book from the National Academy Press.
http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309068363

My Child's Academic Success. Helping Your Preschool Child
http://www2.ed.gov/parents/earlychild/ready/preschool/part.html

What About Kindergarten? Helping Your Preschool Child
http://www2.ed.gov/parents/earlychild/ready/preschool/part_pg9.html#p9

Ready or not...Preparing young children for the classroom
http://readyweb.crc.illinois.edu/virtual-library/1997/readynot.html

Kindergarten: State Statutes
State Characteristics From the ECS Information Clearinghouse. Includes starting age information. Education Commission of the States 707 17th St., Suite 2700 Denver, Colorado 80202-3427
Telephone: 303-299-3600; Fax: 303-296-8332; E-mail: ecs@ecs.org
http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/50/00/5000.htm

Getting Ready: the School Readiness Indicators Initiative
State indicators related to school readiness including reports, articles, and web resources.
http://www.gettingready.org/matriarch/

Readiness for School: A Survey of State Policies and Definitions
http://ecrp.illinois.edu/v2n2/saluja.html

Critical Issue: Promoting Children's Readiness to Learn
http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea700.htm

Schools' Use of Assessments for Kindergarten Entrance and Placement: 1998-99
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003004

80 Skills That Help to Ease Kids' Transition into Kindergarten
http://www.saratogausd.org/index.php/forms-flyers/doc_download/
172-80-skills-that-help-ease-kids-transition-into-kindergarten

Public School Kindergarten Teachers' Views on Children's Readiness for School
This report indicates teachers' reported ratings of the most important qualities children should have to begin school successfully.
http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/frss/publications/93410/

Getting Ready for School
An online article for parents includes suggestions for helping a child be ready for kindergarten.
http://library.adoption.com/articles/getting-ready-for-school-2.html

Other Resources

Bradway, Lauren, & Hill, Barbara Albers. (1993). How to maximize your child's learning ability : a complete guide to choosing and using the best games, toys, activities, learning aids and tactics for your child . Garden City Park: Avery.

Pinanta, Robert C., and Cox, Martha J. (1999). The transition to kindergarten. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.

Simic, Marjorie R.; McClain, Melinda; & Shermis, Michael. (1992). The confident learner: Help your child succeed in school. Bloomington: Grayson Bernard Publishers. (ERIC Document No. ED340062)

Walmsley, Sean A., & Walmsley, Bonnie Brown. (1996). Kindergarten: Ready or not? A Parent's Guide. Portsmouth, N.J.: Heineman. (ERIC Document No. ED400081

ERIC Resources

How to Obtain ERIC Documents and Journal Articles:

References identified with an ED (ERIC document)or EJ (ERIC journal) are cited in the ERIC database. ERIC Documents (citations identified by an ED number) may be available in full text from ERIC at no cost at the ERIC Web site: http://eric.ed.gov. Journal articles are available from the original journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses.

If you would like to conduct your own free ERIC database searches via the Internet, go directly to http://eric.ed.gov/

Kindergarten entry skills

ERIC database search through 06/2007

EJ747496
Title: Children's School Readiness in the ECLS-K: Predictions to Academic, Health, and Social Outcomes in First Grade
Author(s) Hair, Elizabeth; Halle, Tamara; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Lavelle, Bridget; Calkins, Julia
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v21 n4 p431-454 2006 Pages: 24
Publication Date: 2006
ISSN: 0885-2006
Availability: Elsevier. 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. Tel: 877-839-7126; Tel: 407-345-
4020; Fax: 407-363-1354; e-mail: usjcs@elsevier.com; Web site: http://www.elsevier.com
Language: English
Journal Announcement: JAN2007

Two studies examine patterns of school readiness in children at school entry and how these patterns predict
first-grade outcomes in a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners from the Early
Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (N = 17,219). In Study 1, cluster analyses revealed four profiles at kindergarten entry: comprehensive positive development (30%), social/emotional and health strengths (34%), social/emotional risk (13%), and health risk (22.5% of the sample). Study 2 results suggested that children with one of the two "risk" profiles were more likely to be from families with multiple socioeconomic disadvantages. In addition, all four profiles differentially predicted academic and social adjustment in early elementary school. Children with a risk profile performed the worst on all outcomes; children with a comprehensive positive development profile performed the best. The authors discuss the need for early identification of children who may be at risk for entering school with few school readiness strengths.

Descriptors: School Readiness; Kindergarten; Young Children; Prediction; Academic Achievement; Health; Social Development; Grade 1; Longitudinal Studies; Multivariate Analysis; Identification; At Risk Persons


EJ748947
Title: The Role of Emotion Regulation in Children's Early Academic Success
Author(s) Graziano, Paulo A.; Reavis, Rachael D.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.
Source: Journal of School Psychology, v45 n1 p3-19 Feb 2007 Pages: 17
Publication Date: February 2007
Journal Announcement: JAN2007

This study investigated the role of emotion regulation in children's early academic success using a sample
of 325 kindergarteners. A mediational analysis addressed the potential mechanisms through which emotion
regulation relates to children's early academic success. Results indicated that emotion regulation was
positively associated with teacher reports of children's academic success and productivity in the classroom
and standardized early literacy and math achievement scores. Contrary to predictions, child behavior
problems and the quality of the student teacher relationship did not mediate these relations. However,
emotion regulation and the quality of the student-teacher relationship uniquely predicted academic outcomes even after accounting for IQ. Findings are discussed in terms of how emotion regulation skills facilitate children's development of a positive student-teacher relationship as well as cognitive processing and independent learning behavior, all of which are important for academic motivation and success.

Descriptors: Kindergarten; Young Children; Academic Achievement; Emergent Literacy; Mathematics Achievement; Behavior Problems; Teacher Student Relationship; Child Development; Cognitive Processes; Emotional Development; Intelligence; Self Management


EJ769679
Title: Transition to Kindergarten: Family Experiences and Involvement
Author(s): McIntyre, Laura Lee; Eckert, Tanya L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Wildenger, Leah K.
Source: Early Childhood Education Journal, v35 n1 p83-88 Aug 2007
Pub Date: 2007-08-00
The transition to kindergarten is an important developmental milestone for young children, their families, and teachers. Preparing students for successful kindergarten transition has been identified as a national priority, yet the degree to which parents are involved in kindergarten preparation is rarely considered. This study investigated the family experiences and involvement in kindergarten transition in 132 families whose children had completed early education programs and were beginning kindergarten.

Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; Behavior Problems; Young Children; Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; Kindergarten; Transitional Programs; Family Involvement; School Readiness; Academic Achievement; Expectation; Student Behavior; Socioeconomic Influences; Family Income


EJ691331
Title: Identifying Skills for Promoting Successful Inclusion in Kindergarten
Author(s) Kemp, Coral; Carter, Mark
Source: Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, v30 n1 p31-44 Mar 2005 Pages: 14
Publication Date: March 2005
ISSN: 1366-8250
Availability: Customer Services for Taylor & Francis Group Journals, 325 Chestnut Street, Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420 (Toll Free); Fax: 215-625-8914.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: AUG2005

Assisting children with delays and disabilities to develop skills that will maximize their chances of success in regular education classrooms has become important with the trend to inclusion. This study examined (1) the essential skills for successful integration nominated by teachers, (2) the relationships between teacher perception and child performance on selected skills, and (3) the relationship between teacher perception of integration success and selected skills. On-task behavior and direction-following skills of 33 children with intellectual disabilities were measured following one term in regular kindergarten. Teacher perceptions of children's skills were measured after one term and again at the end of the year. Skills nominated by teachers as being critical to school success were generally related to classroom, social and self-help skills. Children rated by their teachers at the end of the year as being more successfully integrated had better on-task behavior and responded better to group directions than those rated as less successful, but the relationship between the direct and indirect measures of classroom skills was generally weak. Critical skills identified were similar to those identified in previous research, suggesting that these findings may be considered robust. The weak relationship between the direct and indirect measures of classroom skills raises questions about interpretation of research that relies entirely on perceptions of teachers. The findings of the research have implications for provision of preschool and early school services.

Descriptors: Kindergarten; Teacher Attitudes; Inclusive Schools; Mainstreaming; Disabilities; Student Behavior; Foreign Countries; Basic Skills; Preschool Teachers; Daily Living Skills; Interpersonal Competence; School Readiness


ED485212
Title: Planning for Terrific Transitions: A Guide for Transition-to-School Teams. Participant's Guide. Revised
Author(s) Hale, Denise; Brown, Glyn; Amwake, Lynn
Author Affiliation: SERVE: SouthEastern Regional Vision for Education, Greensboro, NC.
Source: US Department of Education Pages: 100
Publication Date: 2005
Sponsoring Agency: Institute of Education Sciences (ED), Washington, DC.
Availability: SERVE, P.O. Box 5367, Greensboro, NC 27435. Tel: 800-755-3277 (Toll Free); Fax: 336-315-7457; Web site: http://www.serve.org. http://eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED485212
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

A survey of 3,600 teachers by the National Center for Early Development and Learning (Pianta et al., 1999; NCEDL, 1999) found that teachers were concerned about children's transitions to school. Teachers reported that almost half (48 percent) of children entering kindergarten had moderate or serious problems adjusting to the new experience. These findings suggest that many children would benefit from additional support and resources during this period of transition. In order to address this critical need, SERVE has developed a set of training materials called "Planning for Terrific Transitions: A Guide for Transition-to-School Teams" to help all stakeholders effectively plan, implement, and evaluate their transition process. Topics include forming a comprehensive transitions team, conducting a needs assessment, conducting focus groups, and evaluating goals and strategies. The training focuses on a five-step transition improvement process that teams will use to begin improving their own transition systems. After the training, teams will continue their transitions improvement work and complete each step in the process. Materials for use "back on the job" are included in the participant's manual.

Descriptors: Kindergarten; Transitional Programs; Young Children; School Readiness; Early Childhood Education; Cooperative Planning; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Needs Assessment; Focus Groups


ED484685
Title: Indicators of Early School Success and Child Well-Being. Childs Trends Data Bank. CrossCurrents. Issue 3. Publication # 2004-24
Author(s) Vandivere,Sharon; Pitzer,Lindsay; Halle,Tamara G.; Hair,Elizabeth C.
Author Affiliation: Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.
Source: Child Trends Pages: 14
Publication Date: October 2004
Availability: Child Trends, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 100, Washington, DC 2008. Tel: 202-572-5533; Web site: http://www.childtrends.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

Cognitive skills, engagement in school, social skills, and physical well being are all important for children's early success in school. However, some groups of children begin kindergarten less ready for school than others and, by the end of first grade, still haven't "caught up" with their more successful peers. This CrossCurrents brief reports on indicators of cognitive knowledge and skills, social skills, engagement in school, and physical well being among children entering kindergarten and describes how these indicators change as children progress from kindergarten to first grade. In particular, variations in these indicators among socioeconomic and demographic subgroups of children is examined. Newly available, nationally representative data, found that, on the average, all groups of children make progress on five out of seven indicators of well being and development over the first two years of formal schooling, regardless of their socioeconomic or demographic characteristics. However, it was also discovered that children at lower socioeconomic levels, those from racial or ethnic minority backgrounds, those whose parents do not speak English at home, and those who are disabled tend to be less prepared for school upon kindergarten entry. Furthermore, these more vulnerable children fail to catch up to their peers by the end of first grade. These findings illustrate some of the challenges that new education policies are attempting to address. The information presented here highlights the varied skills that contribute to school readiness and can help policymakers, teachers, and parents identify subgroups of children in need of further support to achieve the academic goals set for all children in our nation. (Contains 37 endnotes.)


Descriptors: Student Diversity; Academic Achievement; Grade 1; Disadvantaged Youth; Well Being; Physical Development; Thinking Skills; Interpersonal Competence; School Readiness; Kindergarten; Physical Development


EJ702982
Title: Is My Child Really Too Young for Kindergarten?
Author(s) Ede, Anita
Source: Childhood Education, v80 n4 p207 Sum 2004 Pages: 2
Publication Date: June 22, 2004
ISSN: 0009-4056
Availability: Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) Subscriptions, 17904 Georgia Ave., Suite 215, Olney, MD 20832. Web site: http://
www.acei.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: DEC2005
Target Audience: Parents

Delaying school entry for a year is most often viewed as an opportunity for children to mature and develop critical academic, social and emotional skills prior to entering kindergarten. Many teachers view delayed school entry as a kindness to younger, less mature students who need more preparation for the rigors of formal academics in 1st grade. Gender also becomes an issue when one is trying to decide whether or not to delay school entry; boys are often viewed as less mature and not as "academically ready" than girls. This article evaluates this issue in relation to both positive and negative aspects of delaying entry into kindergarten.

Descriptors: Kindergarten; School Readiness; Maturity (Individuals); Young Children; Gender Differences; Child Development; Interpersonal Competence; Age Differences; Literacy


ED484507
Title: Readiness: School, Family, & Community Connections. Annual Synthesis, 2004
Author(s) Boethel, Martha
Author Affiliation: Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.
Source: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory Pages: 125
Publication Date: 2004
Sponsoring Agency: Institute of Education Sciences (ED), Washington, DC.
Availability: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. 211 E. 7th Street, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78701-3253. Tel: 800-476-6861 (Toll Free); Fax: 512-476-2286; Web site: http://www.sedl.org/connections/. http://eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED484507
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--General (050); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005
Target Audience: Community; Parents; Teachers; Practitioners; Policymakers

This is one the fourth in a series of reports that examine key issues related to family and community connections with schools. These research syntheses are intended to help local school, community, and family leaders obtain useful information derived from rigorous research. In addition to presenting findings from recent research, the synthesis includes other information to help readers make the most of the research findings. Chapter 1 briefly outlines the purpose, context, and organization of the synthesis. Chapter 2 describes the procedures and criteria used to select the specific studies for review in this report. Chapter 3 provides background information to help readers put specific research findings into the broader context of ideas and practices related to readiness and the transition to kindergarten. Chapter 4 provides the meat of the matter an overview of the major findings from the studies reviewed for this synthesis. Chapter 5 offers recommendations to help practitioners put the research findings to practical use, as well as recommendations for additional research to address this critical topic. Chapter 6 presents a more detailed description of each of the individual research studies from which we drew our findings. To help lay readers understand both the power and the limitations of the findings, a "primer" on what to look out for when analyzing research results is included. Readers with limited research knowledge are strongly encouraged to read through this primer (appendix A) before moving to the other chapters. To help put the findings into context, an overview of major concepts, definitions, and issues related to readiness is also provided, and to help practitioners put the findings to use, some specific recommendations for local policy and practice, as well as further research on this topic are offered.

Descriptors: Educational Research; Research Design; School Readiness; Kindergarten; Parent School Relationship; Educational Policy


EJ675231 PS534547
Title: Kindergarten Teachers' Views of Children's Readiness for School.
Author(s) Lin, Huey-Ling; Lawrence, Frank R.; Gorrell, Jeffrey
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v18 n2 p225-37 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0885-2006
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB2004

Drew on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-- Kindergarten cohort 1998-1999 to examine kindergarten teachers' perceptions of children's school readiness. Found a strong emphasis on social aspects of learning. Female teachers valued social aspects of learning more than did males. Younger teachers valued academic skills more than older teachers. Teachers from the South held higher expectations regarding academic preparedness than did those from the rest of the nation. (Author/KB)

Descriptors: Age Differences; Comparative Analysis; Context Effect; Geographic Regions; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Models; *Preschool Teachers; *School Readiness; *Teacher Attitudes Identifiers: Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey


EJ673578 PS534436
Title: Emergent Curriculum and Kindergarten Readiness.
Author(s) Cassidy, Deborah J.; Mims, Sharon; Rucker, Lia; Boone, Sheresa
Source: Childhood Education, v79 n4 p194-99 Sum 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0009-4056
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2004

Describes the curriculum activities in one child-centered, developmentally appropriate child care facility preschool classroom. Explains how activities are selected according to children's needs, interest, and ability, and how activities address the kindergarten core competencies mandated by the North Carolina public school system. Asserts that only through developmentally appropriate curriculum and assessment can educators be assured that each child is adequately prepared for kindergarten. (KB)

Descriptors: Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Educational Environment; *Kindergarten; Play; *Preschool Children; *Preschool Curriculum; Program Descriptions; *School Readiness; Student Centered Curriculum; Student School Relationship
Identifiers: *Emergent Curriculum; North Carolina


EJ671968 PS534259
Title: Teacher-Rated Family Involvement and Children's Social and Academic Outcomes in Kindergarten.
Author(s) Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Pianta, Robert C.; Cox, Martha J.; Bradley, Robert H.
Source: Early Education and Development, v14 n2 p179-98 Apr 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 1040-9289
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2003

This study examined the relation between teachers' report of family involvement in school and children's social and academic competencies during kindergarten, measuring families' attitudes toward schools and families' activities with schools. Findings suggest that teachers' reports of family attitudes are a more consistent predictor of outcomes than teachers' reports of family involvement activities. (Author)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Family Attitudes; *Family Involvement; Family School Relationship; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Outcomes of Education; Parent Role; Parents; *Social Development; *Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: NICHD Study of Early Child Care


EJ666037 EA540743
Title: When Children Aren't Ready for Kindergarten.
Author(s) Holloway, John H.
Source: Educational Leadership, v60 n7 p89-90 Apr 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP2003
Target Audience: Practitioners

Research suggests that delayed entry into kindergarten has a better chance than kindergarten retention of helping at-risk children avoid school failure. Educators are cautioned to take into account the interactions among race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and age. Some researchers view full-day kindergarten as one way of providing more support for children who need it. (Contains seven references.) (MLF)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Early Childhood Education; *Grade Repetition; *High Risk Students; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *School Readiness
Identifiers: *Delayed School Entry


EJ666024 EA540730
Title: Improving Early School Success.
Author(s) Pianta, Robert C.; La Paro, Karen
Source: Educational Leadership, v60 n7 p24-29 Apr 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP2003
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers

Several large-scale research efforts imply that improving instructional quality rather than assessing student readiness is a better way to promote student performance in the early grades. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/MLF)

Descriptors: *Classroom Environment; Early Childhood Education; *Instructional Improvement; Kindergarten Children; Preschool Teachers; *School Readiness


ED475167 PS031152
Title: School Readiness Study.
Author Affiliation: Illinois State Dept. of Human Services, East St. Louis. Head Start State Collaboration Office.(BBB36977)
Pages: 79
Publication Date: December 2002
Sponsoring Agency: Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. (BBB18571)
Contract No: 05-CD-0013
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Availability: IDHS Head Start State Collaboration Office, 10 Collinsville Ave., Suite 203, East St. Louis, IL 62201-3051. Tel: 618-583-2083; Fax: 618-583-2091; e-mail: dhsd60a2@dhs.state.it.us.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2003

To inform long-term planning for early care and education and school readiness within Illinois, this study examined early care and education programs emphases on school readiness as perceived by early child care and kindergarten teachers. Of particular interest were successful strategies at the early childhood level to prepare children for school, assessments to determine children’s school readiness, and early childhood and kindergarten teachers’ views of school readiness. Participating were 144 early childhood teachers from Illinois Child Care Subsidy programs, Head Start programs, or Illinois state prekindergarten programs, and 74 kindergarten teachers. A combination of random selection and random assignment were used to eliminate sampling bias. The two surveys incorporated the Illinois Early Learning Standards and other skills and practices identified by teachers through the study’s pilot phase. Findings indicated that both early childhood and kindergarten teachers rely on a variety of assessment strategies, with kindergarten teachers relying on their observations more than twice as much as early childhood teachers. Teachers in both groups were very consistent in their preference for particular classroom materials. Both groups endorsed communication of information and encouraging children to work independently as transition practices. There was significant agreement on various instructional strategies, with some disparity between the two groups on teaching letters of the alphabet and teaching children to spell their name. Agreement was high regarding best practices in mathematics, science, creative arts, social and emotional development, and physical development and health. Data analyses suggested a need for dialog regarding the issue of rewarding children for good work, transitioning to different activities, the importance of running outside, and settings for dramatic play. (Copies of the surveys for early childhood and kindergarten teachers are appended.) (KB)

Descriptors: Classroom Techniques; Comparative Analysis; *Early Childhood Education; *Educational Practices; Kindergarten; Preschool Education; *Preschool Teachers; *School Readiness; State Standards; State Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes; Young Children
Identifiers: *Best Practices; Illinois; *Transitional Activities


EJ653042 TM524408
Title: Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement in Kindergarten and First Grade.
Author(s) Denton, Kristin; West, Jerry
Source: Education Statistics Quarterly, v4 n1 p19-26 Spr 2002
Publication Date: 2002
Notes: For the entire journal issue, see TM 034 308. Originally published as the Executive Summary of the Statistical Analysis Report of the same name.
ISSN: 1521-3374
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2003

Explored how children's literacy skills and resources at the start of kindergarten relate to their reading and mathematics achievement at the end of kindergarten and the start of first grade. Data are from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (National Center for Education Statistics). Findings show that children who begin kindergarten with certain resources seem to be at an advantage. (SLD)

Descriptors: *Elementary School Students; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *Literacy; *Mathematics Achievement; National Surveys; Primary Education; *Reading Achievement; *School Readiness


EJ648683 EA539680
Title: Early Childhood Education Issues.
Author(s) Porch, Stephanie
Source: ERS Spectrum, v20 n2 p4-11 Spr 2002
Publication Date: 2002
ISSN: 0740-7874
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2002

Discusses reasons for increased focus on prekindergarten programs, their importance for children at risk, and components of high-quality programs. Describes the preschool curriculum, kindergarten readiness, and reasons why public schools should be involved in prekindergarten programs. (Contains 28 references.) (PKP)

Descriptors: At Risk Persons; Demography; Educational Quality; Educational Research; Kindergarten; Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education; Public Schools


ED463060 PS030186
Title: Children Entering School Ready To Learn: School Readiness Baseline Information, School Year 2001-02 by State and County.
Author Affiliation: Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.(LYR45900)
Pages: 161
Publication Date: February 2002
Notes: For the 2000-01 Preliminary Report, see ED 450 920.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Availability: Maryland State Department of Education, 200 West Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201. Tel: 410-767-0100.
Language: English
Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2002
Government Level: State

As part of its efforts to improve services for children, birth to age five, the Maryland Joint Committee on Children, Youth, and Families charged the State Department of Education with identifying and implementing, by school year 2000-01, an early childhood assessment system that provides baseline information on children entering kindergarten. This report provides state- and county-level school baseline information for school year 2001-02, the first year that all kindergartners in Maryland were rated on their readiness for school. The Work Sampling System (WSS) was used to assess kindergarteners' skills in seven curricular domains: social and personal development, language and literacy, mathematical thinking, scientific thinking, social studies, the arts, and physical development and health. The report notes that 49 percent of entering kindergarten students were rated by their teachers as fully ready for kindergarten work. Forty-four percent were at the "approaching readiness" level and seven percent of students were in the "developing readiness" category. School readiness was related to race/ethnicity, gender, prior early care, special education status, limited English proficiency status, and family economic status. The report includes recommendations for using the baseline information, answers to frequently asked questions, and examples of skills, behaviors, and knowledge indicating full school readiness in each domain. The bulk of the report is presented in three appendices providing descriptions of the 30 WSS indicators, county-level data on selected WSS performance indicators, and county- and state-level information on differences by gender, race/ethnicity, experience in prior care, special education status, English proficiency, and family economic status. (KB)

Descriptors: Child Development; Child Health; Childrens Art; Comparative Analysis; Counties; Early Experience; Emergent Literacy; *Kindergarten Children; Language Skills; *Learning Readiness; Limited English Speaking; Physical Development; Preschool Education; Racial Differences; *School Readiness; Sex Differences; Social Development; Social Differences; Social Studies; Special Needs Students; *State Standards
Identifiers: Ethnic Differences; *Maryland; Mathematical Thinking; Scientific Thinking


ED456129 TM033186
Title: Using Testlets To Identify Cognitive Domains Measured by a Kindergarten Diagnostic Assessment.
Author(s) Miller-Whitehead, Marie
Pages: 25
Publication Date: June 03, 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Alabama
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2002

This study examined a 20-item diagnostic assessment designed to assess readiness of preschool children for kindergarten. Examination of student scores on the individual items of the assessment led to the proposal of the extraction of testlets composed of groups of related items to use information about students' scores better. This approach results in an assessment that essentially is composed of several one-dimensional testlets or blocks that can be scored as scales for achievement or ability on one domain, such as verbal skills. Several simple testlet models, created by principal component analysis and tested by confirmatory factor analysis, are presented, interpreted for the underlying construct, and evaluated. (Contains 5 tables and 40 references.) (Author/SLD)

Descriptors: *Diagnostic Tests; Early Childhood Education; Kindergarten; *Preschool Children; *School Readiness; *Test Use
Identifiers: *Cognitive Domain; *Testlet


ED456894 PS029072
Title: The Mommy and Daddy Guide to Kindergarten: Real-Life Advice and Tips from Parents and Other Experts. A to Z.
Author(s) Bernard, Susan
Pages: 234
Publication Date: 2001
Notes: Written with Cary O. Yager.
ISBN: 0-8092-2547-6
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Contemporary Books, 4255 West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood, IL 60712-1975 (U.S., $14.95; Canada, $21.95). Tel: 800-323-4900 (Toll Free); Tel: 847-679-5500.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2002
Target Audience: Parents

Noting that kindergarten is a time of dramatic change for parents as well as for the kindergarten child, this book presents information on a variety of topics related to kindergarten education. The book is based on interviews with kindergarten teachers, principals, parents, and several experts from higher education involved in kindergarten education. It introduces some of the decisions parents need to make and provides information to help them prepare their child and themselves for the transition. Arranged alphabetically, the topics discussed are: (1) age-appropriate behavior; (2) art; (3) before- and after-school programs; (4) bilingual education; (5) choosing a school; (6) classrooms; (7) computers; (8) curriculum; (9) daily schedule; (10) discipline; (11) first-day jitters; (12) friends; (13) gender; (14) gifted children; (15) homeschooling; (16) homework; (17) kindergarten readiness; (18) learning; (19) math; (20) multicultural education; (21) music; (22) nonpublic schools; (23) parent conferences; (24) parental involvement; (25) physical education; (26) play; (27) principals; (28) public school; (29) reading; (30) report cards; (31) science; (32) social studies; (33) special needs children; (34) teachers; (35) testing; (36) writing; and (37) the zen of kindergarten. Appended is a description of the signs of a good kindergarten classroom, a list of 52 resources, and a list of 16 national organizations related to kindergarten education. (KB)

Descriptors: After School Programs; Bilingual Education; Child Behavior; Classroom Techniques; Discipline; Educational Practices; Gifted; Home Schooling; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Multicultural Education; Parent Materials; Parent Participation; *Parent Student Relationship; Play; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Teachers; Primary Education; Private Schools; Public Schools; Scheduling; School Readiness; Selection; *Student Adjustment; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: Before School Programs


ED455964 PS029734
Title: Ready--Start--School! Nurturing and Guiding Your Child through Preschool & Kindergarten.
Author(s) Rief, Sandra F.
Pages: 240
Publication Date: 2001
ISBN: 0-7352-0299-0
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Prentice Hall Press, 240 Frisch Court, Paramus, NJ 07652 ($15). Tel: 201-909-6385; Fax: 201-909-6378; Web Site: http://www.phdirect.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2002
Target Audience: Parents

Based on the view that the parent is a child's first and most important teacher, this book shows parents how to stimulate and encourage learning in reading and writing, language and communication, thinking and reasoning, plus promote good social and emotional behaviors and improve gross and fine motor skills. Part 1 of the book describes child development between 3 and 5 years of age, discusses the decision for on-time versus delayed kindergarten entry, and outlines general kindergarten readiness skills. Part 2 offers suggestions for creating a home learning environment where children feel confident. Part 3 provides advice on social, behavior, and discipline issues. Part 4 presents information on how children learn to read and suggestions for parents in assisting their children in learning to read. Part 5 describes ways parents can help their child become organized and ready for writing, mathematics, and homework. Part 6 offers suggestions for parents who suspect their child has a developmental delay or disability. Part 7 presents advice for parents regarding school readiness and related issues based on interviews with preschool and kindergarten teachers and directors. The book concludes with a list of other resources by the author. (KB)

Descriptors: Child Development; Child Rearing; Early Childhood Education; Emergent Literacy; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Learning Activities; *Learning Readiness; Parent Child Relationship; Parent Materials; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parents as Teachers; *Preschool Children; *School Readiness; Student Adjustment


ED451952 PS029415
Title: Honoring Children's Rights to Quality Experiences in Preschool That Are Valued by Public School Kindergarten Educators and Administrators. Early Year's Summit.
Author(s) Firlik, Russ
Pages: 15
Publication Date: May 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2001

In New Canaan, Connecticut, several meetings were convened to communicate kindergarten expectations as they relate to the 14 preschools that feed into 3 public elementary schools in New Canaan, and to develop and systemize more effective and efficient transitional practices from the preschool arena to the public school setting. Attending the meetings were 14 preschool directors and their teachers, 17 public school kindergarten staff, and 3 elementary school principals. The outcomes of the meetings were twofold: (1) communication to the preschool population that public school kindergarten curricula were not strictly academically oriented; and (2) an examination of what preschoolers are expected to experience prior to entering kindergarten. A questionnaire was developed to educe the expectations from kindergarten teachers that would be shared with preschools. Four categories of experiences were judged most important by kindergarten teachers: social competencies, communication/language, independent skills, and fine and gross motor experiences. After lengthy discussion, the directors and preschool teachers were in agreement with the expectations. Directors indicated that they would plan specific strategy sessions to better inform their parents about their program and goals based on the agreed upon kindergarten expectations. The final decision of the group was to collaboratively write a position paper to serve as a directive for preschools and the anchor for the kindergarten philosophy that permeates the New Canaan Public Schools. (The position statement regarding the goals for kindergarten children is appended.) (KB)

Descriptors: Interprofessional Relationship; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Position Papers; *Preschool Children; *Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Teachers; Primary Education; School Readiness; Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Expectations of Students; *Transitional Programs
Identifiers: New Canaan Public Schools CT; *Transitional Activities


ED453250 TM032787
Title: Evaluation of a Kindergarten Diagnostic Assessment Instrument by Gender and Ethnicity.
Author(s) Miller-Whitehead, Marie
Pages: 67
Publication Date: April 13, 2001
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Tennessee
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2001

Prekindergarten students (n=1,137) in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse urban public school took a kindergarten diagnostic assessment in September prior to entry into the regular kindergarten program. The assessment was a pilot version of a longer instrument that had been used at the school for several years. Results were used for placement, program planning (class size and multiage grouping), remediation, instructional improvement, and counseling with parents. The results of the diagnostic assessment were evaluated to determine differences in student readiness for kindergarten by gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and English language proficiency. The objective of this analysis was to determine the reliability and validity of the newer, abbreviated version of the kindergarten assessment and its usefulness in making decisions about individuals and groups of students. This paper provides examples of item domain goals and objectives, identifies items that could be useful to equate with other prekindergarten assessments, examines differences in skill attainment for male and female children from ethnic minority groups not identified as Limited English Proficient (LEP) or English Language Learners (ELL) and provides comparisons of several approaches for psychometric evaluation of test items including the transformed item difficulty index, normal curve equivalents, item characteristic curves, and two-parameter Rasch modeling. Implications for assessment and instruction of children from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds are discussed as well as implications for addressing differences in skills attainment for male and female children as they progress through school. Three appendixes contain a correlation matrix for three assessments, a table of sample norms, and a table of normal curve equivalents. (Contains 8 tables, 12 figures, and 58 references.) (Author/SLD)

Descriptors: *Diagnostic Tests; Educational Planning; *Ethnicity; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Preschool Children; Primary Education; Public Schools; Reliability; *School Readiness; Screening Tests; *Sex Differences; Student Placement; Test Format; *Test Use; Validity


ED448899 PS029124
Title: Entering Kindergarten: A Portrait of American Children When They Begin School. Findings from the Condition of Education, 2000.
Author(s) Zill, Nicholas; West, Jerry
Author Affiliation: National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.(EDD00004)
Pages: 39
Publication Date: January 2001
Report No: NCES-2001-035
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398; Tel: 877-433-7827 (Toll Free); Web site: (Home page) http://www.nces.ed.gov; Web site: (Electronic Catalog) http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/indes.asp
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2001
Government Level: Federal

With the launch of the U.S. Department of Education's Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, measures of knowledge, skills, health, and behavior of a large and nationally representative sample of American Kindergartners are available. Drawing on data from the study, this report provides a portrait of kindergarten children in the areas of reading, mathematics, and general knowledge, as well as noncognitive aspects of school readiness. The report details: (1) what a typical child knows at school entry; (2) what the typical child's health and behavior are like at school entry; (3) what factors help account for variations in knowledge, health, and behavior at school entry; (4) what sex-related differences in school readiness exist for kindergartners; (5) what family background characteristics affect children's skills and knowledge; and (6) how risk factors affect noncognitive aspects of school readiness. Among the findings are the following: (1) most children know their letters and can count more than 10 objects; (2) most are in very good to excellent health, though some experience developmental difficulties; (3) most are reasonably well behaved and exhibit a positive approach to classroom tasks; (4) some have advanced skills while others lag behind; (5) age is a factor in variations in knowledge, health, and behavior; (6) girls and boys have similar skills, although girls are slightly ahead in reading; (7) more boys experience developmental difficulties; (8) girls are more prosocial and less prone to problem behavior; (9) nearly half of all entering kindergartners come from families with one or more risk factors in the areas of parental education, socioeconomic status, and family structure; (10) minority children are more likely to be at risk; (11) risk factors are linked to poorer child health; (12) at-risk children are less likely to be socially adept and more likely to be aggressive; and (13) fewer at-risk children have a positive attitude toward learning activities. (Contains 40 references.) (HTH)

Descriptors: Age Differences; *At Risk Persons; Child Health; Family Environment; High Risk Students; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *Knowledge Level; Learning Readiness; Longitudinal Studies; Primary Education; *School Readiness; Sex Differences; Student Attitudes; Student Behavior
Identifiers: Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey


ED447952 PS029061
Title: Early Childhood Development and School Readiness: Some Observations about "Homework" for New Century Working Parents.
Author(s) Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T.
Pages: 25
Publication Date: September 22, 2000
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Voices for Illinois Conference (Chicago, IL, September 22, 2000).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Pennsylvania
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2001

This keynote address examines the relationship between early childhood development and school readiness. The address begins with basic statistical data indicative of the well-being of children in Pennsylvania and Illinois and maintains that advocacy embracing and encouraging interdisciplinary professional collaboration for supporting and empowering parents is needed in both states. The address further discusses the relationship between early childhood development and school readiness, focusing on the contribution of the family home environment to young children's academic and social skills. It is noted that research since the 1960s has affirmed the importance of early parent-child relationships to children's school readiness. Increased collaboration since the 1960s has led to an improved understanding of the interconnections between a young child's physical and psychological status at home, in the family, and performance in the primary grades at school. The recent expansion of Head Start services allows educators to reach more children in poverty prior to school entry than ever before. However, the address argues, parents must be empowered to feel full responsibility for their children's literacy development and school readiness, and to use the skill and knowledge of teachers and others to make their responsibility concrete. It is asserted that it is time for African American parents to assume responsibility, as Asian American parents do, for teaching their own children to read before they go to elementary school. (Contains 22 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: *Blacks; Child Development; Cultural Influences; *Emergent Literacy; Employed Parents; Family Environment; Parent Child Relationship; Parent Role; *Parents; *Parents as Teachers; Reading Instruction; *School Readiness; *Young Children
Identifiers: *African Americans; Illinois


ED446875 PS029033
Title: Readiness for School: A Survey of State Policies and Definitions.
Author(s) Saluja, Gitanjali; Scott-Little, Catherine; Clifford, Richard M.
Author Affiliation: National Center for Early Development & Learning, Chapel Hill, NC.(BBB35605); SERVE: SouthEastern Regional Vision for Education.(BBB29603)
Pages: 55
Publication Date: 2000
Notes: In: Early Childhood Research & Practice: An Internet Journal on the Development, Care and Education of Young Children, Fall 2000; see PS 029 032.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (EDD00036)
Contract No: R307A60004RJ906006701
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; North Carolina
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2001

Understanding the condition of children as they enter school can provide clues to help parents and teachers understand children's performance later in their school career. This information can also provide teachers with essential guidance for individualizing the curriculum to help children learn more effectively. Finally, assessment of the condition of children could be an important part of accountability measurement. This study examined what states are doing with regard to defining and assessing the condition of children as they enter school, often referred to as readiness for school. Early childhood state representatives in each of the 50 states were contacted and interviewed regarding their state's policies on children's readiness for kindergarten. Findings indicated that as of January 2000: (1) age was the criterion most often used to determine eligibility for kindergarten; (2) no state had an official statewide definition of school readiness; (3) several states were studying the issue of school readiness; and (4) local school districts were often making decisions about how children should be assessed and how data on children should be used. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/EV)

Descriptors: Age Grade Placement; Definitions; Early Childhood Education; *Educational Policy; Evaluation Criteria; Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; *Learning Readiness; Policy Analysis; School Entrance Age; *School Readiness; *State Standards; State Surveys; Student Evaluation


ED443570 PS028733
Title: Children Who Enter Kindergarten Late or Repeat Kindergarten: Their Characteristics and Later School Performance. Stats in Brief.
Author(s) West, Jerry; Meek, Anne; Hurst, David
Author Affiliation: National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.(EDD00004); Education Statistics Services Inst., Washington, DC.(BBB36143)
Pages: 6
Publication Date: June 2000
Notes: For a related document on children who enter kindergarten late or repeat kindergarten, see ED 414 076.
Report No: NCES-2000-039
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398; Tel: 202-502-7393; e-
mail: EdithMcArthur@ed.gov. For full text: http://www.nces.ed.gov.
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2001
Government Level: Federal

Raising the age of eligibility to enter kindergarten has not eliminated variations in children's readiness for school, and parents and teachers have used delayed entry and retention as strategies to accommodate these variations. Information from the 1993 and 1995 National Household Education Survey is used to describe the numbers and characteristics of children who experienced delayed kindergarten entry or kindergarten retention, as well as their subsequent performance and adjustment in school. The 1993 and 1995 surveys indicate that 9 percent of all first- and second-
graders had been held out of kindergarten, and that boys experienced delay more often than girls. In 1995, white, non-Hispanic children were twice as likely as black, non-Hispanic children to have entered kindergarten late. Overall prevalence of kindergarten retention was similar for 1993 and 1995, affecting 6 and 5 percent, respectively. In terms of school performance and adjustment, in 1993, parents of children who had experienced delayed entry received less negative feedback from teachers on two of five indicators; in 1995, parents were less likely to report school performance problems on one of four indicators. Children who had been required to spend 2 years in kindergarten performed significantly worse than their first- and second-grade classmates on all 5 of the 1993 indicators and on 2 of the 4 indicators in 1995. Multivariate analysis of delayed entry, retention, and school performance indicated that when demographic, socioeconomic, and developmental factors were taken into account, the differences in school performance between delayed-entry students and other students was small but significant in 1993, but the differences were essentially eliminated in the 1995 data. The same was true for differences between students who had been retained and other students. (HTH)

Descriptors: *Grade Repetition; Individual Differences; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *Performance Factors; Primary Education; *School Entrance Age; School Readiness; Student Characteristics; Student Needs
Identifiers: *Academic Redshirting


EJ617214 SP528838
Title: Parents' Conceptions of Kindergarten Readiness: Relationships with Race, Ethnicity, and Development.
Author(s) Diamond, Karen E.; Reagan, Amy J.; Bandyk, Jennifer E.
Source: Journal of Educational Research, v94 n2 p93-100 Nov-Dec 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 0022-0671
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY2001

Used data from the National Household Education Survey to examine parents' conceptions of kindergarten readiness and home learning, noting relationships with race and ethnicity. Racial/ethnic differences existed in parents' attitudes about readiness. Parents considered several academic and behavioral skills important for kindergarten success. Parents' concerns about kindergarten readiness were unrelated to learning activities and educational television viewing at home. (SM)

Descriptors: Ethnicity; Home Instruction; *Kindergarten Children; *Parent Attitudes; *Parent Child Relationship; Parents as Teachers; Primary Education; *Racial Differences; *School Readiness; Television Viewing


EJ610232 PS530376
Title: Preschool Attendance and Kindergarten Readiness.
Author(s) Taylor, Kathryn Kees; Gibbs, Albert S.; Slate, John R.
Source: Early Childhood Education Journal, v27 n3 p191-95 Spr 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 1082-3301
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2001

Analyzed scores on the Georgia Kindergarten Assessment Program to determine whether school readiness was influenced by preschool program attendance. Found: (1) higher overall school readiness, physical, and personal scores for preschool attendees; (2) no difference as a function of type of preschool; and (3) that girls outperformed boys on the social measure. (DLH)

Descriptors: *Kindergarten Children; *Outcomes of Education; Performance Factors; *Preschool Education; *School Readiness; *School Readiness Tests; Test Use; Testing Programs
Identifiers: Georgia; Georgia Assessment Project


ED445810 PS028905
Title: A Good Beginning: Sending America's Children to School with the Social and Emotional Competence They Need To Succeed.
Author(s) Peth-Pierce, Robin
Pages: 33
Publication Date: 2000
Notes: A publication of the Child Mental Health Foundations and Agencies Network (FAN). Support for this publication was provided in part by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.
Contract No: 200003738
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: National Institute of Mental Health, Office of Communications and Public Liaison, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 8184, MSC 9663, Bethesda, MD 20892-9663; Tel: 301-443-4513; Fax: 301-443-4279; Web Site: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/childhp/fdnconsb.htm
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2001

Recognizing that what, how, and how much children learn in school depends in large part on the social and emotional competence they developed as preschoolers, this monograph examines the current state of research regarding the social and emotional risk and protective factors that predict early school problems or success. The first part of the monograph describes the components of social and emotional school readiness. Risk and protective factors are examined, and the impact of interventions to address neurodevelopmental delay, impaired attachment relationships, maltreatment, and disadvantaged socioeconomic status is described. This part also notes that some of the causal risk factors for early school failure have been identified, and that current knowledge can be used to systematically design and implement intervention. The part maintains that interventions need to address multiple levels and should address causal and malleable risk factors for early school failure. The second part of the monograph summarizes selected federal policies that may improve children's chances of success and analyzes existing links between current research and policy. This part argues that existing policies are not fully implemented, that new policies place additional burdens on already overburdened systems, and that more leaders are needed to champion the development of a seamless, comprehensive system of early childhood care. The monograph's appendix lists risk and protective factors at the individual, microsystem, exosystem, and macrosystem levels as identified in research literature. (KB)

Descriptors: Early Childhood Education; *Emotional Development; Emotional Response; High Risk Students; *Interpersonal Competence; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *Preschool Children; Public Policy; *School Readiness; *Student Adjustment


ED445775 PS028611
Title: Still! Unacceptable Trends in Kindergarten Entry and Placement. A Position Statement. Revision and Update.
Author Affiliation: National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education.(BBB25995)
Pages: 19
Publication Date: 2000
Notes: This position statement was adopted at the Annual Meeting of the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (Chicago, IL, November 11, 1987). For 1987 Position Statement, see ED 297 856.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Colorado
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2001

Noting that the persistence of unacceptable trends in kindergarten entry and placement practices narrows the curriculum in kindergarten and primary education, constricts equal educational opportunity, and curtails the exercise of professional responsibilities of early childhood educators, this position statement of the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE) is offered to increase public awareness about educational policies and practices affecting young children. Following an overview, the statement discusses six principles of kindergarten entry and placement related to: (1) guarding the integrity of effective, developmentally appropriate programs for young children; (2) enrolling children in kindergarten based on their legal right to enter; (3) involving kindergarten teachers and administrators in student assessment decisions; (4) rejecting retention as a viable option for young children; (5) using kindergarten entrance tests in initial planning and information-sharing with parents; and (6) welcoming all children into heterogeneous kindergarten settings. The statement concludes with a challenge to make adjustments that would make education more responsive to the needs of young children, and to allow only those practices that are beneficial to young children. (Contains 48 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Age Grade Placement; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; Educational Practices; Grade Repetition; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Position Papers; Primary Education; School Entrance Age; *School Readiness; Social Promotion; Student Adjustment; *Student Placement; *Transitional Programs
Identifiers: National Association Early Childhood Specialists


EJ607003 PS530683
Title: Children's Initial Sentiments about Kindergarten: Is School Liking an Antecedent of Early Classroom Participation and Achievement?
Author(s) Ladd, Gary W.; Buhs, Eric S.; Seid, Michael
Source: Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, v46 n2 p255-79 Apr 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 0272-930X
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2000

Examined relationship between school liking, classroom participation, and achievement with 200 entering kindergartners. Found greater support for the premise that school liking fosters classroom participation and achievement than for contention that early participation and achievement increases school liking or identification. Found that children's early academic progress stemmed from affective processes that were distinct from other entry factors. (Author/KB)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Affective Behavior; Class Activities; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Longitudinal Studies; Predictor Variables; *School Attitudes; School Readiness; *Student Adjustment; *Student Attitudes; Student Participation; *Young Children


EJ604846 EA537083
Title: Which Is the Best Kindergarten?
Author(s) Nelson, Regena Fails
Source: Principal, v79 n5 p38-41 May 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 0271-6062
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2000

Examines four types of kindergarten programs (developmental, multiage, full-day, and lower class size) to determine which best accommodates developmental differences while enhancing youngsters' readiness for formal schooling. Low-income, urban areas should implement full-day kindergarten programs and smaller classes in first through third grades. (MLH)

Descriptors: *Developmental Programs; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Diversity (Student); *Full Day Half Day Schedules; Individual Differences; *Kindergarten; Low Income Groups; *Mixed Age Grouping; Poverty Areas; Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; School Readiness; *Small Classes; Urban Schools


ED433154 PS027964
Title: A Six-County Study of the Effects of Smart Start Child Care on Kindergarten Entry Skills.
Author(s) Maxwell, Kelly; Bryant, Donna; Miller-Johnson, Shari
Author Affiliation: North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Frank Porter Graham Center.(BBB04365)
Pages: 39
Publication Date: September 1999
Notes: Prepared by the FPG-UNC Smart Start Evaluation Team.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: Web site: www.fpg.unc.edu/~smartstart; Tel: 919-966-4295.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; North Carolina
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2000

The purpose of this study was to determine whether children living in North Carolina who attended child care centers that participated in many Smart Start quality improvement efforts have better skills when they enter kindergarten than do a comparison group of children from other child care centers of family child care homes. Subjects were 214 Smart Start children and 294 comparison children. Within the group of Smart Start children, a subgroup of 142 were identified who attended centers participating in activities directly related to improving child care quality. Information on the cognitive, language, and social skills of all subjects was gathered as they began kindergarten. Findings indicated that when all 214 Smart Start children were compared with all comparison children, the skills of the two groups were not different. However, the Smart Start-direct subgroup did have significantly better cognitive and language skills than comparison children. Also, fewer children in this subgroup were rated by their kindergarten teachers has having behavior problems than children in the comparison group. The findings of this multi-county study support earlier single-county reports of the positive effects of Smart Start on children's outcomes. The findings suggest that Smart Start efforts need to be directly related to improving the quality of child care if they are to have an effect on children's school entry skills. (KB)

Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Counties; *Day Care; Family Day Care; Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Outcomes of Education; Preschool Education; Primary Education; Program Improvement; *School Readiness; *Student Adjustment
Identifiers: Day Care Quality; *Smart Start NC


ED437225 PS028233
Title: Teacher and Parent Expectations for Kindergarten Readiness.
Author(s) Welch, Michael D.; White, Barzanna
Pages: 22
Publication Date: May 1999
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Test/questionnaires (160)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Louisiana
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2000

Based upon the view that children learn better if their parents' and teachers' expectations are closely aligned, this study compared expectations of teachers and parents for school readiness skills and preparation required for entry into public school. A Likert rating scale was completed by 25 kindergarten/early childhood teachers and 104 parents of children enrolled in kindergarten/early childhood classes in one Louisiana school community. The survey was modified from one used in a national study on teacher opinion toward selected school readiness skills/preparation attributes. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to determine if significant differences existed between parents and teachers. Significant questions were examined using independent t-tests to determine the direction of the variation. Local teacher responses were compared to those in the national study. Significant differences were found between parents and teachers on 3 items of the 25-item survey. Parents were more likely than teachers to place importance on time set aside daily to practice school work, to believe that all children would be ready for first grade upon completion of kindergarten, and to place importance on knowing the letters of the alphabet before school entry. Teachers from both the local and the national study identified the same three attributes as essential or very important for children entering public school: (1) physically healthy, rested, and well nourished; (2) can communicate needs, wants, and thoughts verbally in the child's primary language; and (3) is enthusiastic and curious in approaching new activities. (The rating scale is appended. Contains 13 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; National Surveys; Parent Attitudes; *Parents; *Preschool Teachers; Primary Education; *School Readiness; Teacher Attitudes; *Teacher Expectations of Students
Identifiers: *Parent Expectations


EJ587669 EA536052
Title: Recipes for School Success: An Interview with Dorothy Rich.
Author(s) Goldberg, Mark F.
Source: Phi Delta Kappan, v80 n10 p770-72 Jun 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0031-7217
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120); Reports-Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2000

During the 1960s, Dorothy Rich used paper cartons, tables, lamps, chairs, electric bills, and other paraphernalia of home life to construct "recipes" to help parents prepare their kids for achieving academic success. Rich's contemporary MegaSkills training program, developed at the Home and School Institute, is highly regarded. (MLH)

Descriptors: *Basic Skills; Biographies; *Daily Living Skills; Elementary Secondary Education; *Family School Relationship; Program Descriptions; *School Readiness; *Success; *Workshops
Identifiers: Home and School Institute DC; *MegaSkills Programs


ED428866 PS027440
Title: Readiness To Learn. 1997 Kindergarten Survey Report and County Data.
Author Affiliation: Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.(SJJ69450)
Pages: 34
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: Oregon Department of Education, 255 Capitol Street, N.E., Salem, OR 97310-0203; Tel: 503-378-5585; Fax: 503-373-7968; e-mail:
barbara.slimak@state.or.us
Language: English
Document Type: Reports-Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1999
Government Level: State

This document is comprised of two reports, the first detailing findings of a 1997 Oregon survey to determine the status of the state's current kindergarten children and their developmental readiness for school, and the second providing county data from the survey. Surveys were mailed to 1,141 public school kindergarten teachers and 245 private school kindergarten teachers to obtain teachers' views on children's physical well-being, language usage, approaches toward learning, cognitive and general knowledge, motor development, and social and emotional development. The findings indicated that 48.2 percent believed that children's readiness was about the same as 5 years ago. A total of 49 percent of kindergartners who did not attend formal preschool were identified as not meeting one or more of the readiness areas; 35.8 percent of children who did attend preschool did not meet one or more of the areas. Almost half of the males and about one third of females did not meet one or more readiness area. Over 40 percent of public school kindergartners and about 30 percent of private school kindergartners did not meet one or more of the developmental areas. About 70 percent of teachers identified "physically healthy, rested, and well nourished" as the first and most important area of readiness. Over 60 percent of teachers reported that one or more of their students were in special education. Over 40 percent of teachers reported that one or more of the children did not speak English well or at all. (KB)

Descriptors: Counties; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *Learning Readiness; *Preschool Teachers; Primary Education; *School Readiness; State Surveys; Statistical Surveys; *Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Oregon


EJ568093 SP526828
Title: Chalkboard. Is Your Child Ready for Kindergarten?
Author(s) Anarino, Susan
Source: Our Children, v23 n8 p38 May 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 1083-3080
Language: English
Document Type: Guides-Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB1999
Target Audience: Parents

Many parents question whether their children are ready for kindergarten and whether they can succeed. Teachers must determine where students stand as they guide them through their kindergarten skills. Parents can hone their children's kindergarten- readiness skills at home by providing creative, challenging activities that prepare them for the kindergarten classroom. (SM)

Descriptors: Cognitive Development; Emotional Development; *Kindergarten Children;*Learning Readiness; Parent Responsibility; *Parents as Teachers; Preschool Children; Primary Education; *School Readiness


ED412025 PS025903
Title: Getting a Good Start in School.
Author(s) Copple, Carol, Ed.
Author Affiliation: National Education Goals Panel, Washington, DC.(BBB28482)
Pages: 13
Publication Date: January 1997
Notes: This document has been reviewed and condensed by the Goal 1 Early Childhood Assessments Resource Group from ED 391 576.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: National Education Goals Panel, 1255 22nd Street, N.W., Suite 502, Washington, DC 20037; phone: 202-724-0015; fax: 202-632-0957; e-mail: NEGP@goalline.org; www: http://www.negp.gov
Language: English
Document Type: Reports-Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB1998

In 1990, the National Education Goals were established by the President and the 50 state governors. Goal 1 states that by the year 2000, all children in America will start school ready to learn. This booklet is a condensed version of an earlier document intended to further amplify the dimensions of early learning and development used by the National Educational Goals Panel to measure progress toward Goal 1. Following a list of objectives of Goal 1 and a look at the subjective nature of assessing learning readiness, the booklet briefly discusses the following five dimensions that contribute to school preparedness: (1) health and physical development; (2) emotional well-being and social competence, serving as the foundation for relationships which give meaning to the school experience; (3) approaches to learning, referring to the inclinations, dispositions or styles by which children acquire knowledge; (4) communicative skills, including language, and reading and writing processes; and (5) cognition and general knowledge, the sum of children's early experiences and how they record those experiences. Characteristics of five children considered ready to learn are noted, highlighting the different combination of strengths and weaknesses along the five dimensions. The booklet concludes with a list of publications about or related to readiness, for parents, educators, and policymakers. (HTH)

Descriptors: Cognitive Style; Early Childhood Education; Early Experience; Emotional Development; Interpersonal Competence; *Learning Readiness; Physical Development; Prior Learning; *School Readiness; Student Adjustment; *Young Children
Identifiers: *Goals 2000


ED399044 PS024458
Title: When Are Children Ready for Kindergarten? Views of Families, Kindergarten Teachers, and Child Care Providers.
Author(s) Harradine, Christine C.; Clifford, Richard M.
Pages: 24
Publication Date: April 1996
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996).
Sponsoring Agency: North Carolina State Dept. of Human Resources, Raleigh. (BBB19601)
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports-Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; North Carolina
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN1997

This study compared the beliefs of parents of preschoolers, kindergarten teachers, and child care providers in North Carolina about the characteristics children should have upon entry to public school kindergarten. Surveys were administered statewide through in-person or telephone interviews to 757 parents (half receiving public assistance), 575 kindergarten teachers, and 553 child care providers. Respondents were asked to select the 3 most important characteristics for children's kindergarten readiness from a list of 15 characteristics derived from the National Education Goals Panel. Results indicated that the three most important qualities identified by all groups were: (1) being healthy, well-nourished and well-rested; (2) being able to effectively communicate needs, wants, and thoughts; and (3) being enthusiastic and curious when approaching new activities. School-related skills such as knowing the alphabet, knowing shapes and colors, using pencils and paint brushes, counting, finishing tasks, and solving problems fell at or near the bottom of the rankings for all groups. Chi square tests of homogeneity indicated that families and child care providers ranked counting, knowing English, and knowing the alphabet significantly higher than kindergarten teachers. Providers put greater emphasis than the other groups on having good problem solving skills, being sensitive to others, and knowing colors and shapes. Teachers were more likely than the other groups to rate being enthusiastic, being able to communicate effectively, and being able to not disrupt the class as most important. (Contains 20 references.) (KDFB)

Descriptors: Child Caregivers; Comparative Analysis; Daily Living Skills; Day Care; Interviews; *Kindergarten; *Parent Attitudes; Preschool Teachers; *School Readiness; *Teacher Attitudes; Telephone Surveys
Identifiers: National Education Goals Panel; North Carolina


ED404026 PS025039
Title: Helping Your Child Start School: A Practical Guide for Parents.
Author(s) Ryan, Bernard, Jr.
Pages: 224
Publication Date: 1996
ISBN: 0-8065-1798-0
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Carol Publishing Group, 120 Enterprise Avenue, Secaucus, NJ 07094 ($10.95; $14.95 Canada; quantity discounts).
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides-Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Connecticut
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1997
Target Audience: Parents

Noting that school is an influence stronger than any a 5-year-old child has yet known, this parent guide to preparing children to enter school brings together two understandings: first, an understanding of the child at the time school begins and during the first school year; second, an understanding of school, and what goes on inside the classrooms, gymnasiums, and playgrounds. Chapters in the first section of the book deal with getting ready for school, including a child's development, and how much "school" is necessary before Kindergarten. Chapters in the second section discuss the learning experiences that occur in school in the areas of language and literature, science and nature, number concepts, music, and physical education. This section also discusses the concept of integrated curriculum, and mainstreaming of children with disabilities. Chapters in the third section deal with parent involvement, and cover play, habits, and health, and a parent's relationship with the child's teacher. Lists of suggested readings for the child and for the parent conclude the book. (HTH)

Descriptors: Class Activities; Classroom Environment; Developmental Stages; Early Experience; Elementary School Curriculum; Emotional Adjustment; *Kindergarten; *Parent Student Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Parents as Teachers; Primary Education; *School Readiness; *Student Adjustment


ED401041 PS024793
Title: Your Child Goes to School: A Handbook for Parents of Children Entering School for the First Time.
Author Affiliation: Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.(LYR45900)
Pages: 34
Publication Date: 1996
Notes: Supercedes ED 356 866.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides-Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1997
Government Level: State
Target Audience: Parents

The five chapters in this handbook, intended for parents of children entering kindergarten for the first time, offer suggestions about how parents can help their child get ready for school and make starting kindergarten a successful and happy event. Chapter 1 describes when learning begins and offers tips for helping children who are starting school and for handling opening day jitters. Chapter 2 focuses on knowing more about 4- and 5-year-old children and offers suggestions for monitoring children's health, happiness, anger, and safety. Chapter 3 is devoted to parents' learning about the child's teacher, the contents of the school program, school laws, and the school's methods of testing children. Chapter 4 discusses before- and after- school care and offers guidelines for examining the types of care available, finding care, and determining whether the child care offered fits the parents' needs. Chapter 5 explains the parents' role in their child's education and suggests activities to help the child succeed in and out of school. An appendix lists detailing actions involved in good parenting and skills for parents to develop in dealing constructively with their or their child's anger. (KDFB)

Descriptors: After School Programs; Child Development; *Elementary Education; Health Needs; *Kindergarten; Learning Readiness; Parent Child Relationship; Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Parents as Teachers; *Preschool Children; Psychological Needs; Safety; School Entrance Age; *School Readiness; Screening Tests
Identifiers: Before School Programs


ED400120 PS024705
Title: Welcome to School: Questions Parents Might Ask.
Author Affiliation: National Parent Information Network, Urbana, IL.(BBB33819)
Pages: 10
Publication Date: 1996
Notes: Multi-colored brochure folded in the shape of a triangle that could serve as a hat (thinking cap?) for a child.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (EDD00036)@National Library of Education (ED/OERI), Washington, DC. (EDD00108)
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides-Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB1997
Government Level: Federal
Target Audience: Parents; Teachers; Administrators; Practitioners

Intended to foster communication among parents, teachers and school administrators, this brochure presents lists of questions parents may ask concerning school programs and policies, particularly at the beginning of the school year. Questions are organized by different levels of schooling from pre-kindergarten to high school. Pre- kindergarten questions address issues including readiness, accreditation, and transitions. Elementary questions include parent involvement, curriculum and class size issues. Questions for middle schools cover issues involving sex education, drug prevention, mentoring, counseling, and computer use. High school questions cover issues including apprenticeships, guidance and graduation procedures, and options for transitions into the work force or higher education. General questions address school policy issues including homework, testing, safety, absences, and discipline. (AMC)

Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Evaluation Criteria; *Family School Relationship; *Inquiry; Interviews; Kindergarten; Middle Schools; *Parent Participation; *Parent School Relationship; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parent Teacher Cooperation; Questioning Techniques; School Readiness
Identifiers: Parent Expectations; *Questions


ED399004 PS024282
Title: Learning Partners: Get Ready for School!, Get to School Safely!, Let's Succeed in School!, Being Responsible, Let's Be Healthy!, Let's Use TV!, Let's Use the Library!, Let's Do Geography!, Let's Do History!, Let's Do Art!
Author Affiliation: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.(EDD00036)
Pages: 22
Publication Date: 1996
Report No: MIS-96-6504; MIS-96-6514; MIS-96-6515; MIS-96-6516; MIS-96-6517; MIS-96-6519; MIS-96-6520; MIS-96-6521; MIS-96-6522
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides-Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN1997
Government Level: Federal
Target Audience: Parents

This document consists of 10 one-page sets of guidelines developed by the Family Involvement Partnership for Learning to assist parents in facilitating their children's elementary school success. The topics addressed in the guidelines include: (1) preparing children for school attendance; (2) safety while traveling to and from school; (3) successful learning; (4) responsible behavior; (5) hygiene and nutrition; (6) television use; (7) library use; (8) geography skills; (9) history; and (10) art. Each topic includes a series of suggestions for things parents can do to facilitate success in that area. Activities for children from different grade levels are described and resources for further information are listed. (KDFB)

Descriptors: Art Activities; Child Health; Child Responsibility; *Children; Creative Activities; Daily Living Skills; Elementary Education; Geography
Instruction; Health Activities; History Instruction; Hygiene; Learning Activities; Learning Readiness; Library Instruction; Mass Media Use; Nutrition; Parent Materials; *Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; Safety Education; *School Readiness; Self Care Skills; Student Adjustment; Television Viewing; Transportation
Identifiers: Family Involvement Partnership for Learning