Homework: Amount, Effects, Help for Students and Parents
Nancy McEntire
2001 (Last updated March 2006)

How much time should a student spend on homework?

Many teachers follow these homework guidelines:

  • Grades 1-3: 20 minutes of homework per day
  • Grades 4-6: 20 to 40 minutes per day
  • Grades 7-9: 2 hours per day

Some schools set policies while, in other schools, teachers may set homework limits for their classes. Some students can handle more homework than others (Office of Educational Research and Improvement [OERI], 1995).

"For children in grades K through 2, homework is most effective when it does not exceed 10 to 20 minutes each day. Most children in grades three through six can handle 30 to 60 minutes a day" (Chaika, 2000).

Should children have daily homework?

Little research specifically addresses whether daily homework is beneficial to children. Snyder (1998) suggests that most elementary students do some homework daily.

What role should parents play in helping their children with homework?

A publication from the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI, 1996) suggests four ways for parents to help a child with homework:

  1. Show that you think homework is important by providing a consistent time and place for it. Help your student concentrate by turning off the television, banning personal telephone calls, and setting a good example by reading and writing yourself. Make sure your student has any needed supplies and access to reference materials.
  2. Check over the work your child is doing, offering help or monitoring when needed. Know what the teacher expects and monitor more closely if a child is having problems with completing work.
  3. Provide guidance and encouragement. Your job is not to do the work but to help in ways your child needs. Talking about an assignment may help the student work through it. Teach ways for a child to divide a large assignment into manageable parts. Look for work that you can praise.
  4. Discuss your child's homework difficulties with the teacher. Work together with the teacher to resolve problems and work out a plan to improve homework completion. Check to see if the plan is helping.

Why do teachers assign homework and does it improve academic achievement?

Some studies indicate that teachers in the lower grades assign homework to help children develop time management skills and to review class material. According to an analysis of more than 100 studies, in the lower grades the effect of homework on achievement is minimal. Moreover, too much homework can be detrimental to family life and student achievement. However, homework completion frequency does predict the student's grades and may have an impact on later achievement. It may also help forge a connection between school and home (O'Rourke-Ferrara, 1998).

What policies do school districts have on homework?

Not all districts have homework policies and not all schools and teachers follow the policies their districts may have. A survey in 1994 found that most districts do not have policies. Most allowed for modifications for students with disabilities, and most informed parents about policies they did have (O'Rourke-Ferrara, 1998).

School districts setting policies usually consider the following questions (Eddy, 1984):

  • What kind of homework is most effective?
  • How much homework is appropriate?
  • At what age level is homework a useful learning tool?
  • Who is responsible for deciding how much homework to assign?
  • Who is responsible for monitoring homework?

What are some online resources for children to use when doing homework?

Ask Jeeves for Kids
Allows users to ask a question in plain English, confirms the question, then takes them to one web site that is related to the question.
http://www.ajkids.com/ [Editor's note (2007-04-12): This web site has changed: Ask Jeeves is now Ask for Kids:http://www.askkids.com]

Schoolwork Ugh! includes pages of links to resources in a variety of subjects.
http://www.schoolwork.org/

BJ Pinchbeck's Homework Helper
Compiled by a middle school student for middle school students.
http://school.discoveryeducation.com/homeworkhelp/bjpinchbeck/index.html

Factmonster
This web site for children includes subject resources as well as resources on study skills.
http://www.factmonster.com/homework/?link=fmhpn

KidSource Online Education Homework Helper is a list of homework helper net sites. It is located at http://www.kidsource.com/education/homework.calendar.html.

HomeworkSpot.com includes homework resources for elementary, middle, and secondary students in most subject areas, as well as a reference center with pointers to quick reference materials, current events information, and "ask-an-expert" services. It is located at http://www.homeworkspot.com.

KidsClick! is a Web search for children by librarians. KidsClick! was created by a group of librarians at the Ramapo Catskill Library System. It is located at http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/KidsClick!/. [Editor's note: this link has changed: http://www.kidsclick.org]

References

Chaika, Gloria. (2000). Help! Homework is wrecking my home life! Education World [Online]. Available: http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin182.shtml

Eddy, Yvonne. (1984). Developing homework policies. ERIC Digest [Online]. Available: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-921/homework.htm (ERIC Document No. ED256473)

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). (1995). Helping your child with homework [Online]. Available: http://www2.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/homework/index.html

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). (1996). Let's do homework! Learning partners. Washington, DC: Author. (ERIC Document No. ED400122)

O'Rourke-Ferrara, Catherine. (1998). "Did you complete all your homework tonight, dear?". Unpublished manuscript. (ERIC Document No. ED425862)

Snyder, Thomas D. (1998). Trends in Education. Principal, 78(1, September): 40, 42, 44, 46-48. (ERIC Journal No. EJ570142)

Web Resources

The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher, 2007: The Homework Experience
The Survey examines the perspectives of teachers, students and parents regarding the quantity of homework assigned and completed, how and when homework is accomplished, the impact of
homework, perceived goals and value of homework, the level of student engagement in learning,
and the amount of time teachers spend on homework.
http://www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/10124301191202765628V1FTeacherSurveyHomeworkFinal.pdf

Homework Help
How can parents help? Scroll down for additional helpful links.
http://www.reacheverychild.com/homework.html Editor's Note: this url is no longer active.

Using Research to Answer Practical Questions About Homework
Little association is found between the amount of homework young students complete and achievement. Two examples are provided showing how research results can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of recommendations for policy and practice.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a784755266~db=all

Homework
Explore a web page of links related to homework policies and practices.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_special/homework.shtml

How Does Your School Handle the Homework Dilemma?
Does your school have a homework policy? How much homework is the right amount for each grade level?
http://www.educationworld.com/a_admin/admin/admin432.shtml

Homework Takes a Hit!
Homework, an entrenched tradition in education, is taking a hit from the authors of a controversial new book that proposes ending the practice.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat146.shtml

Help for Homework Hassles!
How can teachers motivate students to do their homework?
http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr255.shtml

Let's Do Homework!
http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/parents/LearnPtnrs/home.html

Students' Use of Time: Percentage of 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds who were watching 3 or more hours of television, assigned homework, and reading for fun daily: 1984 and 1999. Click on Charts: Students' Use of Time.
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001072_3.pdf

Helping Your Child with Homework
This publication helps answer the questions that parents and others who care for children in elementary and junior high school often ask about homework. Included are practical ideas for helping children complete homework assignments successfully. Some of the ideas in this book may also be helpful for high school students. Available in English and Spanish. Updated August 2002.
http://www2.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/homework/index.html

Helping Your Student Get the Most Out of Homework
This brochure from the National PTA answers many questions parents may have about homework and the best ways to help their children with homework.
http://www.pta.org/2044.htm

Helping Your Students with Homework: A Guide for Teachers
This 40-page booklet from the U.S. Dept. of Education is filled with ideas from teachers for helping to make homework effective and is organized around 18 tips for getting homework done.
http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/HelpingStudents/index.html

Homework Survival Guide for Parents
Published by the National Association of School Psychologists.
http://www.nasponline.org/resources/home_school/homework.aspx

Homework Tips
http://www.pacer.org/mpc/pdf/mpc-14.pdf

Homework: What Does the Research Say?
Parents often have questions about why homework is assigned, how beneficial it is, and how they may best help their child complete homework.
http://library.adoption.com/articles/homework-.html

How Important Is Homework?
Assigning homework serves various educational needs. It serves as an intellectual discipline, establishes study habits, eases time constraints on the amount of curricular material that can be covered in class, and supplements and reinforces work done in school. In addition, it fosters student initiative, independence, and responsibility and brings home and school closer together.
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content/HOW_IMPORTANT_HOMEWORK.html

Milbourne, Linda A., & Haury, David L. Helping students with homework in science and math. ERIC Digest http://www.ericdigests.org/2000-1/homework.html

Table 114.—Student proficiency in reading, by age, amount of time spent on homework and reading habits: 1984, 1994, 1996 and 1999
http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d01/dt114.asp

Table 118. —Percentage distribution of 4th-graders, by time spent on homework and television viewing each day: 1992 to 2000
http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d01/dt118.asp

A Teacher's Guide to Homework Tips for Parents
http://www2.ed.gov/teachers/how/parents/homework-tips/edlite-slide001.html

Homework Strategies from Education World
Homework strategies for teachers, including how to get students to do it.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/strategy/strategy002.shtml

 

Other Resources

Cooper, Harris M. (2001). The battle over homework: Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Cooper, Harris; Lindsay, James J; & Nye, Barbara. (2000). Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 464-487.

Corno, Lyn. (1996). Homework is a complicated thing. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 27-30.

Begley, Sharon. (1998, March 30). Homework Doesn't Help. Newsweek, 50.

Muhlenbruck, Laura; Cooper, Harris; Nye, Barbara; & Lindsay, James J. (2000). Homework and achievement: Explaining the different strengths of relation at the elementary and secondary school levels. Social Psychology of Education, 3, 295-317.

ERIC Resources

How to Obtain ERIC Documents and Journal Articles:

References identified with an ED (ERIC document)or EJ (ERIC journal) are cited in the ERIC database. ERIC Documents (citations identified by an ED number) may be available in full text from ERIC at no cost at the ERIC Web site: http://eric.ed.gov. Journal articles are available from the original journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses.

If you would like to conduct your own free ERIC database searches via the Internet, go directly to http://eric.ed.gov/

Homework

ERIC database search through 12/2005

ED485638
Title: Parent and Family Involvement in Education: 2002/03.
Author(s) Vaden-Kiernan, Nancy; McManus, John; Chapman, Chris
Author Affiliation: National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.
Source: National Center for Education Statistics Pages: 76
Publication Date: May 2005
Availability: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827 Toll Free). http://eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/
ERICServlet?accno=ED485638
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: AUG2005

This report presents data on parents' and families' involvement in their children's education in the United States. The data are from the Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003). The survey was completed by parents of over 12,000 children in kindergarten through grade 12. Data highlights are shown, along with examples of questions for each topic area of the questionnaire. Descriptors: Family School Relationship; Student Characteristics; Parents; Elementary Secondary Education; Parent Participation; Parent Attitudes; Disabilities; Homework; Extracurricular Activities


EJ684974
Title: Mothers' Affect in the Homework Context: The Importance of Staying Positive
Author(s) Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Qian; Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin
Source: Developmental Psychology, v41 n2 p414-427 Mar 2005 Pages: 14
Publication Date: March 2005
ISSN: 0012-1649
Availability: American Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. Tel: 800-374-2721 (Toll Free); Tel: 202-336-5510; TDD/TTY: 202-336-6123; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail: journals@apa.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

This research investigated mothers' affect in the context of children's homework. Mothers (N=109) of children 8 to 12 years old were interviewed daily about their affect while interacting with children, their assistance with children's homework, and children's behavior while completing homework. At this time and 6 months later, children's motivational and emotional functioning was assessed. Although mothers' negative affect was lower than their positive affect, it was elevated on days their assistance with homework was high. This was accounted for by mothers' perceptions of children as helpless on days they provided heightened assistance. Mothers' positive affect in the homework context buffered children's motivational and emotional functioning against mothers' negative affect as well as children's helplessness. Descriptors: Mothers; Homework; Affective Behavior; Emotional Response; Parent Child Relationship; Child Behavior; Student Motivation; Psychological Patterns


EJ693935
Title: Developing a Comprehensive Homework Policy
Author(s) Fairbanks, Ellen Kelly; Clark, Margery; Barry, Joan
Source: Principal, v84 n3 p36-39 Jan-Feb 2005 Pages: 4
Publication Date: 2005
ISSN: 0271-6062
Availability: National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke Street Alexandria, VA 22314. Tel: 800-386-2377 (Toll Free); Fax: 800-396-2377; e-mail: naesp@naesp.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: AUG2005

The authors describe the results of surveys conducted by a small school district in Massachusetts to determine homework practices and beliefs, including time spent on homework, parent assistance, homework format, and balancing of homework and other activities. The result was the establishment of a comprehensive homework policy, including grade-level time limits. A sidebar lists the homework responsibilities of students, parents, teachers, and principals. Descriptors: Small Schools; Homework
Identifiers: Massachusetts


EJ698725
Title: Putting an End to the Battle over Homework.
Author(s) Lacina-Gifford, Lorna J.; Gifford, Russell B.
Source: Education, v125 n2 p279 Win 2004 Pages: 3
Publication Date: December 22, 2004
ISSN: 0013-1172
Availability: Project Innovation, Inc., P.O. Box 8508, Spring Hill Station, Mobile, AL 36689-0508. Web site: http://journals825.home.mindspring.com/csj/html
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: SEP2005

You would think that the sound of school bells ringing out in dismissal would be a happy one to the ears of students anxious to go home after a long day in classes, but many are finding the work is just beginning after the final bell. Homework may be nothing new, but lately the vast amounts coming home in the book bags and backpacks of students of all ages seem to be leaving kids dazed and parents stressed. While proponents argue homework is necessary to improve achievement; proponents will argue that it takes away valuable time from family bonding. What is needed is a different approach to homework which provides social interaction for family and peers while providing meaningful learning beyond the classroom. Descriptors: Interpersonal Relationship; Interaction; Homework; Reading Instruction


ED484761
Title: Parental Involvement in Homework: A Review of Current Research and Its Implications for Teachers, After School Program Staff, and Parent Leaders
Author(s) Walker, Joan M. T.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Whetsel, Darlene R.; Green, Christa L.
Author Affiliation: Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, MA.
Source: Harvard Family Research Project Pages: 10
Publication Date: October 2004
Availability: Harvard Family Research Project, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 3 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Tel: 617-495-9108; Fax: 617-495-8594; e-mail: hfrp@gse.harvard.edu.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

Parents often become involved in their children's education through homework. Whether children do homework at home, complete it in after school programs or work on it during the school day, homework can be a powerful tool for (a) letting parents and other adults know what the child is learning, (b) giving children and parents a reason to talk about what's going on at school, and (c) giving teachers an opportunity to hear from parents about children's learning. In 2001 the authors reviewed research on parental involvement in children's homework (Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2001). The review focused on understanding why parents become involved in their children's homework, what strategies they employ, and how involvement contributes to student learning. The review supported theoretical arguments that parents choose to become involved in homework because they believe they should be involved, believe their involvement will make a positive difference in their children's learning, and perceive that their involvement is invited, expected, and valued by school personnel (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 1995, 1997). The review also suggested that parents engage in a wide range of activities in this effort, from establishment of basic structures for homework performance to more complex efforts focused on teaching for understanding and helping students develop effective learning strategies. Descriptors: Parent Child Relationship; Learning Strategies; Homework; Parent Participation; After School Programs; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Parent Attitudes


EJ687691
Title: Family Help and Homework Management in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools
Author(s) Xu, Jianzhong
Source: Teachers College Record, v106 n9 p1786-1803 Sep 2004 Pages: 18
Publication Date: September 2004
ISSN: 0161-4681
Availability: Journal Customer Services, Blackwell Publishing, 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148. Tel: 800-835-6770 (Toll Free); Fax: 781-388-8232; e-mail: subscrip@bos.blackwellpublishing.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

This article calls attention to developmental and home conditions that affect the development of good work habits through homework. The first section examines recent studies that have alluded to the possibility of developing good work habits through family involvement with secondary school homework. The second section describes two survey studies, in urban and rural secondary schools, that explicitly link homework management to family help and grade level. The data suggest that secondary students could still benefit from clear expectations from adult assistance regarding how to foster the development of homework management strategies, regardless of helper's educational background. The data also suggest, however, that such help is overshadowed by increasing internal distractions students encounter as they move from middle school into high school. The final section discusses implications for future research and practice regarding how to foster adolescents' work habits through homework, particularly for high school students. Descriptors: Educational Background; Secondary Schools; Family Involvement; Homework; Study Habits; Rural Areas; Urban Areas; Family Environment


EJ683352
Title: Homework as the Job of Childhood
Author(s) Corno, Lyn; Xu, Jianzhong
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p227-233 Aug 2004 Pages: 7
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 0040-5841
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

The authors undertook a series of empirical studies to examine how students experience homework at various grade levels. The research casts a different light on the century-old practice of doing homework, suggesting it is the quintessential job of childhood. Homework creates a situation where the child must complete assigned tasks under minimal supervision and after little initial training. Doing well on that job gets one further along in school. As in the workplace, when children move from beginners to experts with homework, they demonstrate responsibility and become skilled at managing tasks. These positive outcomes enhance the intended deepening of students' subject matter knowledge. However, the authors assert that another virtue of homework is that it can prepare children for jobs they will have one day; it may develop an aptitude for gainful employment. Descriptors: Homework; Children; Student Responsibility; Role of Education; Age Differences


EJ683349
Title: Reflecting on the Homework Ritual: Assignments and Designs
Author(s) Van Voorhis, Frances L.
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p205-212 Aug 2004 Pages: 8
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 0040-5841
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005
Target Audience: Teachers

A look at the popular press and books on homework reveals that this nightly ritual is a common complaint of many students and a source of tension among families. Teachers hold the key to changing homework processes and can help to reduce such tensions. This article highlights issues related to general homework practice, including time spent on homework, communication between the home and school, and the purposes of homework. In addition, the article includes a discussion of the benefits and design of a specific type of interactive homework called Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS). By reflecting on homework practices and implementing a regular schedule of interactive homework, teachers have the potential to engage students and families in more positive homework experiences. Descriptors: Homework; Students; Parent School Relationship; Parents


EJ683350
Title: Improving Homework Completion and Academic Performance: Lessons from Special Education
Author(s) Bryan, Tanis; Burstein, Karen
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p213-219 Aug 2004 Pages: 7
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 0040-5841
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

Homework problems among students with learning disabilities can be attributed to two primary causes: (a) students' characteristics (e.g., poor motivation, problems in listening comprehension, lack of organizational skills), and (b) teachers' deficits in making assignments (e.g., assigning work that is too difficult or time-consuming, failing to ensure that students record assignments properly or have necessary materials). The past decade has seen growing interest in homework intervention research, which has primarily addressed helping students develop homework completion skills. This article summarizes the results of these studies in general and special education classrooms and describes several strategies that appear to improve homework compliance--including reinforcements, graphing, cooperative study teams, homework planners, and parent involvement. Because there have been so few studies, suggestions are made for future research to fill in the large gaps in our knowledge base for effectively using homework to enhance students' academic achievement. Descriptors: Special Education; Parent Participation; Parent School Relationship; Listening Comprehension; Homework; Learning Disabilities; Academic Achievement; Intervention; Student Motivation


EJ683348
Title: Homework Motivation and Preference: A Learner-Centered Homework Approach
Author(s) Hong, Eunsook; Milgram, Roberta M.; Rowell, Lonnie L.
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p197-204 Aug 2004 Pages: 8
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 0040-5841
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005
Target Audience: Parents; Students; Counselors

Students, teachers, counselors, and parents are all important in determining the degree to which homework is effective in meeting its goals. Teachers assign homework, parents provide the environment in which it is done, and students each with a unique profile of motivation and preference for learning do the homework. It is a challenge for everyone involved to cooperate, share information about children's homework motivation and preferences, and develop strategies to be used at school and at home to attain a better match between what the child likes to do and has to do when learning. This article prepared to assist teachers, parents, and counselors to meet this challenge describes a conceptual homework model and a technique of assessing homework motivation and preferences based on the model. Intervention strategies for how to use this knowledge to make students' homework performance more effective and enjoyable are suggested. Descriptors: Student Motivation; Intervention; Homework; Student Centered Curriculum; Cognitive Style; Models; Measures (Individuals)


EJ683346
Title: Meanings of Homework and Implications for Practice
Author(s) Coutts, Pamela M.
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p182-188 Aug 2004 Pages: 7
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 1543-0421
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

Many of the discussions in both the popular and academic press assume that the key participants and stakeholders have the same understandings about homework and its meanings. However, this is not necessarily the case. For example, in the widely reported tension and conflict in families about homework completion, one contributing factor may be the meanings students, parents, and educators ascribe to homework and the purposes it fulfills. This article examines how research has considered these varying meanings and perceptions and how they may impact student attitudes and behaviors toward homework. The article argues that the positive outcomes of homework frequently cited by parents (such as motivational, academic, and life skills benefits) are less recognized by children, especially elementary students. In most cases, the mismatch is likely to be between the student focus on proximal costs of homework and the adult focus on long-term benefits. The implications of these understanding for practitioners is then discussed. Descriptors: Homework; Student Attitudes; Students


EJ683345
Title: Villain or Savior? The American Discourse on Homework, 1850-2003
Author(s) Gill, Brian P.; Schlossman, Steven L.
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p174-181 Aug 2004 Pages: 8
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 0040-5841
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

This article examines homework's place in American K-12 schooling over the last century and draws three main conclusions. First, homework has always aroused strong passions pro and con. Second, despite prominent press reports to the contrary in the early 20th century and again today, the best evidence suggests that most parents have consistently supported homework during the last 100 years. Third, homework practice is slow to change but is not unmovable, as evidenced by increases in high school homework in the decade after Sputnik and recent increases in homework for children in grades K-2. Nevertheless, the academic excellence movement of the last 20 years has succeeded in raising homework expectations only for the youngest children. Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; Homework; Elementary School Students; High School Students


EJ683347
Title: The Motivational Benefits of Homework: A Social-Cognitive Perspective
Author(s) Bempechat, Janine
Source: Theory Into Practice, v43 n3 p189-196 Aug 2004 Pages: 8
Publication Date: August 01, 2004
ISSN: 0040-5841
Availability: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Journal Subscription Department, 10 Industrial Avenue, Mahwah, NJ 07430-2262. Tel: 800-926-6579 (Toll Free); e-mail: journals@erlbaum.com.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: JUL2005

This article argues that, as a pedagogical practice, homework plays a critical, long-term role in the development of children's achievement motivation. Homework provides children with time and experience to develop positive beliefs about achievement, as well as strategies for coping with mistakes, difficulties, and setbacks. This article reviews current research on achievement motivation and examines the ways parents and teachers encourage or inhibit the development of adaptive beliefs about learning. It then integrates the literature on homework and achievement motivation and shows that homework's motivational benefits, while not named as such, have been in evidence for some time. Finally, the article argues that homework is a vital means by which children can receive the training they need to become mature learners. Descriptors: Homework; Coping; Student Motivation; Academic Achievement; Educational Benefits; Cognitive Development; Social Development


EJ695969
Title: Low-Income Parents' Beliefs About their Role in Children's Academic Learning
Author(s) Drummond, Kathryn V.; Stipek, Deborah
Source: Elementary School Journal, v104 n3 p197 Jan 2004 Pages: 18
Publication Date: January 2004
ISSN: 0013-5984
Availability: University of Chicago Press, Journals Division, P.O. Box 37005, Chicago, IL 60637. Tel: 773-753-3347; Web site: http://www.journal.uchicago.edu; e-mail: subscriptions@press.uchicago.edu
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: AUG2005

In individual telephone interviews, 234 low-income African-American, Caucasian, and Latino parents rated the importance of helping their second- and third-grade children in reading, math, and homework and of knowing what their children are learning. Parents reported whether they had taught their child in math and reading and read with their child in the past week. They also answered open-ended questions about the type of help they deemed appropriate. On questionnaires, teachers rated each student's reading and math skills and noted whether they had given a child's parent suggestions for helping with either subject. Findings showed that parents rated the importance of helping their child with academic work very high. Parents of second graders tended to rate the importance of helping higher than did parents of third graders. Similar to past research, ratings varied systematically as a function of parents' perceptions of children's academic performance and as a function of whether teachers had offered suggestions; however, parents perceived helping with reading as more important than helping with math. Findings implied that teachers who desire more parent involvement might need to use different strategies for the two subjects. In addition to specific approaches for helping with math, reading, and homework, parents noted other activities they believed would help their children succeed. Descriptors: Parents as Teachers; Parent School Relationship; Grade 2; Grade 3; Mathematics Instruction; Homework; Parent Attitudes; Parent Role; Low Income Groups; Reading Instruction


ED477945 PS031378
Title: Homework Tips for Parents = Consejos para los padres sobre la tarea escola.
Author Affiliation: Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.(EDD00063)
Pages: 21
Publication Date: May 2003
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Availability: ED Pubs, Education Publications Center, U.S. Department of Education, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827 (Toll Free); Tel: 800-872-
5327 (Toll Free); Fax: 301-470-1244; e-mail: edpubs@inet.ed.gov; Web site: http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/edpubshtml. For full text: http://www2.ed.gov/offices/OIIA/pfie.
Language: English; Spanish
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2004
Target Audience: Parents

Homework has been a part of students' lives since the beginning of formal school in the United States; the push for increased homework has increased, fueled by rising academic standards. Noting that parents involved can have either a positive or a negative influence on the value of homework, this booklet, in both English and Spanish, offers suggestions to parents to enhance the effectiveness of children homework experience. The booklet first offers general homework tips, such as providing a suitable space for study and helping with time management. Specific tips are then offered for homework in reading, such as having the child read aloud, or asking what the child thinks will happen next in the story; and for homework in math, such as engaging frequently with the teacher to monitor math progress, and not teaching strategies or approaches that may conflict with ones the teacher is using. The guide concludes by highlighting the education reform principles of the No Child Left Behind Act. (HTH)

Descriptors: Beginning Reading; *Homework; Mathematics Instruction; Multilingual Materials; Parent Participation; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parents as Teachers; Reading Instruction; Student Improvement


EJ672554 CG560524
Title: Self- and Parental Monitoring of Homework in Adolescents: Comparative Effects on Parents' Perceptions of Homework Behavior Problems.
Author(s) Toney, Leah P.; Kelley, Mary Lou; Lanclos, Nicole Francingues
Source: Child & Family Behavior Therapy, v25 n1 p35-51 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0731-7107
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080); Reports--
Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2004

Study compared the effects of two interventions for middle school students with homework problems: parental monitoring and structuring of homework, and adolescent self-monitoring and structuring of homework. Results indicate that Homework Problem Checklist scores significantly improved for both interventions compared to the control sample, but were not different from one another. Additionally, parents rated the two treatments as highly acceptable. (Contains 25 references, 2 tables, and 2 figures.) (GCP) Descriptors: *Adolescents; *Behavior Problems; *Homework; *Intervention; Middle School Students; Middle Schools; Parent Child Relationship; *Parent Participation

Identifiers: *Progress Monitoring; *Self Monitoring


EJ672013 PS534894
Title: Family Help and Homework Management Reported by Middle School Students.
Author(s) Xu, Jianzhong; Corno, Lyn
Source: Elementary School Journal, v103 n5 p503-17 May 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0013-5984
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2003

This study drew on survey data from 121 urban middle school students to define features of homework management. Findings indicated that arranging the environment and controlling emotions related systematically to family help with homework. Homework management indices were unrelated to standardized achievement test scores. Findings generated discussion of extant research to deepen understanding on how standards, modeling, and appropriate feedback can help develop adolescents' homework management skills. (Author/KB)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; Adolescents; Behavior Standards; Family Environment; Feedback; *Homework; *Middle School Students; *Middle Schools; Modeling (Psychology); *Parent Student Relationship; Parents; Standardized Tests; Student Motivation; Surveys

Identifiers: *Emotional Regulation


EJ672013 PS534894
Title: Family Help and Homework Management Reported by Middle School Students.
Author(s) Xu, Jianzhong; Corno, Lyn
Source: Elementary School Journal, v103 n5 p503-17 May 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0013-5984
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2003

This study drew on survey data from 121 urban middle school students to define features of homework management. Findings indicated that arranging the environment and controlling emotions related systematically to family help with homework. Homework management indices were unrelated to standardized achievement test scores. Findings generated discussion of extant research to deepen understanding on how standards, modeling, and appropriate feedback can help develop adolescents' homework management skills. (Author/KB)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; Adolescents; Behavior Standards; Family Environment; Feedback; *Homework; *Middle School Students; Middle Schools; Modeling (Psychology); *Parent Student Relationship; Parents; Standardized Tests; Student Motivation; Surveys
Identifiers: *Emotional Regulation


EJ668707 SE569130
Title: Schools, Families, and Math.
Author(s) Murray, Megan
Source: Hands On!, v26 n1 p8-11 Spr 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0743-0221
Availability: TERC, 2067 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140; Tel: 617-547- 0430; Web site: www.terc.edu.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Book/product reviews (072); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2003

Introduces "Schools and Families: Creating a Math Partnership," a book designed to help parents see the math in their children's work and establish effective home-school partnerships. Includes an except from the book that discusses how homework can help parents see how their children are learning and doing mathematics in class. (KHR)

Descriptors: Communication (Thought Transfer); Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Mathematics Education; Parent School Relationship; Parents as Teachers; *Partnerships in Education


EJ662534 CS763858
Title: The Impact of Background Radio and Television on High School Students' Homework Performance.
Author(s) Pool, Marina M.; Koolstra, Cees M.; van der Voort, Tom H. A.
Source: Journal of Communication, v53 n1 p74-87 Mar 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0021-9916
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL2003

Examines the impact of background media on Dutch students' performance and time spent on paper-and-pencil and memorization homework assignments. Notes that doing homework combined with watching a soap opera interfered with students' performance on both types of assignments. Indicates that music in the background left homework performance unaffected. Finds no indication that background media influenced the amount of time spent to complete homework assignments. (PM) Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Foreign Countries; *Homework; *Mass Media Effects; Media Research; Memorization; Music; Radio; Secondary Education; Soap Operas; Television
Identifiers: *Distraction; Netherlands


EJ657392 EC631357
Title: Weekend Study Buddies: Using Portable Learning Centers.
Author(s) Stephens, Harristina; Jairrels, Veda
Source: TEACHING Exceptional Children, v35 n3 p36-39 Jan-Feb 2003
Publication Date: 2003
ISSN: 0040-0599
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR2003
Target Audience: Teachers; Practitioners

This article discusses how one teacher uses a weekend study buddy as a portable learning center for students (ages 5-9) with mild disabilities. The study buddy is a colorful cloth or paper bag that the students take home over the weekend. It can also be individualized to target particular needs. (Contains 8 references.) (CR)

Descriptors: Elementary Education; Family Environment; *Home Study; *Homework; Learning Activities; *Mild Disabilities; *Parent Participation; *Weekend Programs


ED461439 PS030264
Title: Homework Tips for Parents: Talking Points for Presenters To Use with Transparencies.
Author(s) Cooper, Harris M.; Gersten, Russell M.
Author Affiliation: Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.(EDD00115)
Pages: 39
Publication Date: March 2002
Contract No: ED-02-PO-0559ED-02-PO-0332
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398. Tel: 877-433-7827 (Toll Free); Fax: 301-470-1244; e-mail: edpubs@inet.ed.gov. For full text: http://pfie.ed.gov.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL2002
Government Level: Federal
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers

This set of overhead projector transparencies is intended to assist parents and teachers in understanding the importance of homework and the role that parental involvement plays in assigning homework. The transparencies respond to the following statements: Homework should only be given to students in grades 4 and above; Assigned homework should focus only on one aspect of learning; If a child is having trouble with his or her homework, parents should reach out to the teacher or school for help; and All homework should have a positive impact on students in the long run. The next three transparencies highlight what teachers can tell parents about homework, including providing a suitable area and materials, helping with time management, modeling "homework" such as balancing a checkbook, not doing the child's assignment for him or her, helping the child figure out what is hard homework and what is easy homework, and watching for signs of failure or frustration. The next four transparencies offer homework tips for reading and for math. The final transparency lists resource information: an 800-phone number for the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education and World Wide Web addresses for the Department of Education and for the Partnership. The presenter's guide provides a print version of each transparency as well as discussion for the true/false questions and elaboration on the "what teachers can tell parents about homework" points. (HTH)

Descriptors: *Homework; Parent Education; *Parent Role; *Parent Student Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Partnerships in Education; Teacher Role


ED454049 SE064903
Title: Teachers' Use of Interactive Homework and Its Effects on Family Involvement and
Science Achievement of Middle Grade Students.
Author(s) Van Voorhis, Frances L.
Pages: 37
Publication Date: April 2001
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research
Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001).
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
(EDD00036)
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIENOV2001

This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of teachers' use of interactive and non-interactive science homework assignments on family involvement in student homework, homework completion and accuracy, student science achievement, and student and parent attitudes about science homework. Two hundred and fifty-three students from ten classes of sixth and eighth grade students participated in this study that lasted eighteen weeks during the school year. Six classes of students completed Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS) interactive assignments, and four classes completed non-interactive assignments (ATIPS). TIPS students received instructions to involve a parent or other family partner in certain sections of the homework assignment while ATIPS students received the same assignment with no instruction for family involvement. Results indicated that TIPS students more often involved parents in their science homework assignments than did ATIPS students; however, TIPS science students reported no more parental or family involvement in homework than ATIPS students where teachers did not assign interactive homework. The results of this study indicate the benefits of well-designed interactive homework for students in terms of levels of family involvement in homework, science attitudes, and science achievement. Appended are: Sample 8th Grade Geology TIPS Activity parent and student handouts. Contains 36 references, 5 tables, and 2 figures. (SAH)

Descriptors: *Family Involvement; *Homework; Interaction; *Middle School Students; Middle Schools; *Science Achievement; Science Education; Student Attitudes


EJ627827 EA538246
Title: Homework Problems: How Much Is Too Much?
Author(s) Vail, Kathleen
Source: American School Board Journal, v188 n4 p24-29 Apr 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0003-0953
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2001

Homework is a battleground for many families. Increasingly, parents are asking their school boards to reconsider the amounts of homework assigned, and administrators are questioning homework quality. A New Jersey district has imposed strict limitations, allowing students more downtime and reading/informal learning opportunities. (MLH)

Descriptors: Boards of Education; *Educational Benefits; Elementary Secondary Education; Family Life; *Homework; Individual Differences;
Informal Education; *Parent Attitudes; *Problems; Recreational Reading; *School Policy; *Student Welfare; Teacher Expectations of Students
Identifiers: Virginia (Alexandria)


EJ627399 TM523448
Title: A Model of Homework's Influence on the Performance Evaluations of Elementary School Students.
Author(s) Cooper, Harris; Jackson, Kristina; Nye, Barbara; Lindsay, James J.
Source: Journal of Experimental Education, v69 n2 p181-99 Win 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0022-0973
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2001

Tested a model of the influence of homework on classroom performance using a sample of 429 students in grades 2 and 4, their parents, and their 28 teachers. Data reveal the critical role of parents in both the homework process and the success of elementary school students. Positive parent involvement in homework was the strongest predictor of grades. (SLD)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; *Elementary School Students; *Homework; *Parent Participation; Parent Role; Parents; *Performance Based Assessment


EJ626294 EA538318
Title: Averting the Homework Crisis.
Author(s) Glazer, Neil T.; Williams, Sharron
Source: Educational Leadership, v58 n7 p43-45 Apr 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2001

Key ingredients for achieving academic success include being prepared, taking responsibility for one's learning, making an effort, and completing
homework every day. At Shaker Heights (Ohio) Middle School, after-school programs (academic sessions, a homework center, a homework hotline, and a university tutorial program) help students complete homework assignments. (MLH)

Descriptors: *After School Programs; *Homework; Middle Schools; Program Descriptions; *Student Needs; *Student Responsibility; *Tutors
Identifiers: *Ohio (Shaker Heights)


EJ626292 EA538316
Title: Homework for All--in Moderation.
Author(s) Cooper, Harris
Source: Educational Leadership, v58 n7 p34-38 Apr 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0013-1784
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2001

Homework substantially affects high-school students' achievement, benefits junior-high kids only half as much, and elementary kids negligibly.
Homework can be an effective teaching tool when districts, schools, and teachers flex and coordinate their policies, stress developmentally appropriate assignments, and try alternatives to homework. (Contains 11 references.) (MLH)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Educational Benefits; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; Problems; *School Policy; *Teacher Responsibility


ED445776 PS028652
Title: Empowering Intrinsic Learners.
Author(s) Martin, Joan; Powers, Linda; Ward, Jamie; Webb, Michelle
Pages: 125
Publication Date: May 2000
Notes: Master's Action Research Project, St. Xavier University and SkyLight Professional Development Field Based Master's Program.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC05 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Dissertations/Theses (040)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR2001

Noting that developing self-motivated, empowered students is an ongoing challenge for teachers, administrators, and parents, this action research project sought to build intrinsic learners, using cooperative learning and multiple intelligences. Participating in the project were students of two third-grade regular division classes and sixth and eighth grade gifted classes. Student deficits in organizational skills and work ethic were documented by means of teacher observation, test scores, report card grades, and effort grades. The 18-week intervention was comprised of cooperative learning activities, introduction to multiple intelligences, and lessons integrating cooperative learning and multiple intelligences. Also used in the classroom were a positive discipline plan and the encouragement of study skills. To assess the effects of the intervention, pre- and post- intervention parent and student surveys were used as well as weekly teacher observations, checklists, grades, and individual student and teacher reflections. Survey findings revealed that students enjoyed cooperative learning activities more than other activities. The focus of the intervention with third graders was on developing social skills; those skills did not transfer beyond the actual cooperative group work. Parents noted that children spent less time on homework after the intervention but did not notice any impact on their children's work habits. Students reported increases in writing down their homework assignments, and preferences for working in cooperative groups, but no changes in doing their best on school work. Researchers noted an increase in completed homework. (Eight appendices include sample instructional materials and data collection instruments. Contains 41 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Assignments; Change Strategies; *Cooperative Learning; *Elementary School Students; Gifted; Homework; *Middle School Students; Middle Schools; Multiple Intelligences; Primary Education; Student Attitudes; *Student Empowerment; Student Improvement; Student Interests; *Student Motivation


ED444702 PS028775
Title: Improving Academic Achievement through Creative Alternatives to Traditional Homework Strategies.
Author(s) Diersen, Kimberly
Pages: 69
Publication Date: May 2000
Notes: Master's Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University and IRI Skylight Field-Based Masters Program.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Dissertations/Theses (040)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEFEB2001

Recognizing the relationship between homework completion and academic achievement, this action research project targeted eighth graders in all subject areas who failed to complete homework assignments and provided them with creative strategies to improve homework completion. Participating in the project were eighth graders from a small, suburban, Midwestern town. Homework completion problems were documented from existing grade reports, teacher anecdotal records, and surveys from parents, students, and teachers. The intervention program emphasized student personal responsibility by requiring assignment notebooks to be completed with current assignments. All homework assignments were graphed in the assignment notebook to show students and parents the students' personal homework progress. Afterschool study sessions were required for students receiving failing grades. Creative homework options replaced traditional worksheet methods that made it more attractive for students to complete their homework independently. The impact of the intervention was assessed by means of student surveys, grades, homework records, and teachers' anecdotal records and journals. In addition, student pre-algebra grades from the 2000 class were compared to those from the 1999 class that had not used assignment notebooks. Post-evaluative measures indicated that students completed more homework when required to keep a daily assignment notebook and when given homework options in place of traditional homework. Pre-algebra grades were higher and the number of missing assignments were fewer for the 2000 class than for the 1999 class. Graphing of homework results and use of after school study sessions were not perceived as useful in reaching the goal of increasing homework completion. (Four appendices contain the surveys used in this project. Contains 26 references.)(KB)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Action Research; Assignments; *Change Strategies; Comparative Analysis; Early Adolescents; Grade 8; *Homework; *Junior High School Students; Junior High Schools; Parent Attitudes; *Student Attitudes; *Student Improvement; Student Motivation; Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Teacher Journals


EJ607903 EA537047
Title: A Panel Analysis of Student Mathematics Achievement in the US in the 1990s: Does Increasing the Amount of Time in Learning Activities Affect Math Achievement?
Author(s) Aksoy, Tevfik; Link, Charles R.
Source: Economics of Education Review, v19 n3 p261-77 Jun 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 0272-7757
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2000

Uses panel estimation techniques to estimate econometric models of mathematics achievement determinants for a nationally representative sample of high-school students. Extra time spent on math homework increases test scores; an extra hour of TV viewing negatively affects scores. Longer math periods also help. (Contains 56 references.) (MLH)

Descriptors: Divorce; Econometrics; Family Income; High Schools; Homework; *Influences; *Learning Activities; Longitudinal Studies; Mathematical Models; *Mathematics Achievement; Private Schools; *Scores; Socioeconomic Influences; Teacher Salaries; Television Viewing; *Time Factors (Learning); *Time on Task
Identifiers: *National Education Longitudinal Study 1988


EJ610305 PS530751
Title: Looking at Homework Differently.
Author(s) Corno, Lyn
Source: Elementary School Journal, v100 n5 p529-48 May 2000
Publication Date: 2000
Notes: Theme Issue Topic: "Non-Subject-Matter Outcomes of Schooling."
ISSN: 0013-5984
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2001

Suggests a new conceptualization of homework as a task that infiltrates family and peer dynamics and the nature of teaching in community organizations and in school. Argues that homework has important benefits for peer communication, thereby increasing a sense of community. Asserts that students can develop an aptitude for future homework from the regularities of ongoing homework. (KB)

Descriptors: After School Programs; Case Studies; *Educational Change; Educational Innovation; *Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Parent Student Relationship; Self Control; *Student Motivation; Student School Relationship
Identifiers: Self Regulation


ED443581 PS028744
Title: "Can You Help Me with My Homework?" Elementary School Children's Invitations and Perspectives on Parental Involvement.
Author(s) Walker, Joan M.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Reed, Richard P.; Jones, Kathleen P.
Pages: 19
Publication Date: April 27, 2000
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Tennessee
Journal Announcement: RIEJAN2001

Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's model of the parental involvement process, this study examined links between empirically suggested manifestations of children's invitations and parents' levels of involvement in children's homework activities. Relevant literature suggested the potential importance of four child attributes in inviting parents' homework involvement: (1) child's general level of performance; (2) child's experience of difficulty with daily homework; (3) child's developmental press for independence; and (4) child's valuing of the parent's involvement activities. Twenty public school fourth graders and their parents (one per child) were interviewed individually and responded to questionnaires; data on child school performance were gathered from school records (6-week report cards for the full year; standardized achievement test results for the year). Findings suggested very modest links between higher levels of parental involvement and higher work difficulty as reported by parents, lower child press for independence as reported by parents, as well as lower general levels of performance as reflected in child interviews and school grades. Child valuing of parental help was linked weakly to parental involvement (stronger child valuing of parents' involvement activities was positively related to child reports of more parental involvement.) These and other findings were considered in light of qualitative patterns of parent and child observations in the interview data set, as were implications for theoretical understanding of variables contributing to parents' involvement decisions. Based on findings, suggestions were devised for teachers and parents wishing to increase the incidence and effectiveness of parents' involvement in their elementary children's education. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/KB)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; *Elementary School Students; *Homework; *Parent Participation; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parents; Performance Factors; *Student Attitudes


ED450930 PS029272
Title: The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning.
Author(s) Kralovec, Etta; Buell, John
Pages: 119
Publication Date: 2000
ISBN: 0-8070-4218-8
Available from: Document Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: Beacon Press, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02108-2892; Tel: 617-742-2110; Fax: 617-742-2290; Web site: http://www.beacon.org ($18).
Language: English
Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Massachusetts
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG2001

Arguing that the burden of homework causes significant family stress--including parent-child conflict, reduced family leisure time, and overly tired children--this book questions whether the benefits of homework are worth its costs. The book examines the historical progression of homework and the influence of international competition on the trend toward increasing homework assignments. While there is little evidence that excessive homework sharpens skills or leads to a competitive edge in the global market place, the book notes evidence that homework does broaden class divides, as children in families with fewer resources struggle to keep up. The book concludes by offering simple strategies for parents to "trust their instincts" and work to reduce the demands of homework. Following the introduction providing a rationale for this discussion, the chapters of the book are as follows: (1) "The Kitchen Table," setting out the myths of homework and illustrating its impact on family life in countless homes across the country; (2) "Does Homework Work?"; (3) "Homework in Historical Perspective"; (4) "Kids and Homework"; (5) "Homework and the Level Playing Field"; (6) "Homework in the Global Economy"; and (7) "What's a Mother--and a Neighborhood, and a Nation--to Do?" Contains extensive notes organized by chapter. (HTH)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Academic Standards; Change Strategies; Educational Attitudes; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; *Family Environment; *Homework; Low Income Groups; *Parent Attitudes; *Parent Student Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Social Change; Social Class; *Student Attitudes
Identifiers: Historical Background


EJ622242 SO533309
Title: Homework and Attainment in Primary Schools.
Author(s) Farrow, Steve; Tymms, Peter; Henderson, Brian
Source: British Educational Research Journal, v25 n3 p323-41 Jun 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0141-1926
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAUG2001

Investigates the frequency of homework in mathematics, science, and reading as reported by a large sample of primary school children. Reports on (1) amount of homework and its relationship to ability, home background, sex, and school and (2) school effect. Considers influences on the relationship between homework and achievement. (CMK)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; *Homework; *Mathematics Education; *Reading Instruction; *Science Education; Student Attitudes
Identifiers: England


EJ587795 EC622525
Title: Parents' Reports on Homework Amount and Problems in Academically Talented Elementary Students.
Author(s) Worrell, Frank C.; Gabelko, Nina H.; Roth, David A.; Samuels, Lisa K.
Source: Gifted Child Quarterly, v43 n2 p86-94 Spr 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0016-9862
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN2000

A study examined the amount and types of responses to homework assignments reported by 577 parents of academically talented elementary students. Students completed homework with few negative responses. While homework assignments increased with grade level, the amount of time parents spent assisting with homework did not increase beyond first grade. (Author/CR)

Descriptors: *Academically Gifted; *Assignments; Elementary Education; Helping Relationship; *Homework; Parent Child Relationship; *Parent Participation; *Student Attitudes


EJ608898 SE563850
Title: Homework Horror? Relax!
Author(s) Lawton, Millicent
Source: Scientific American Explorations, v2 n4 p40,42 Fall 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 1099-5005
Availability: Published by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017-1111.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC2000

Presents specific strategic and organizational advice to parents on helping children with nightly homework. (WRM)

Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Homework; Mathematics Education; Middle Schools; *Parent Participation; *Parent Role; Science Education; Student Needs; *Study Habits; *Study Skills


ED435956 CG029662
Title: Strategies To Improve Student Motivation To Complete Homework Assignments.
Author(s) Fraser, Esther; Mallek, Chris; Sigourney, Donna; Watland, Millie
Pages: 84
Publication Date: May 1999
Notes: Master's Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University & IRI/Skylight.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Dissertations/Theses (040); Test/questionnaires (160)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Illinois
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2000

This paper describes a program designed to increase student motivation to complete homework assignments. The targeted population consisted of 3rd, 4th, 9th, and 10th grade students attending schools in the Midwest. Analysis of probable cause data reveals that parental involvement can be insufficient and misdirected. Homework can lack relevance to content material, skills, and students' lives. Students may lack organizational skills and homework strategies to complete homework assignments. Data also indicates that poor student attendance can influence homework completion. A review of solution strategies resulted in the selection of two major categories of intervention: direct instruction of organizational and homework strategies, and the development and implementation of individualized student homework contracts to increase student motivation to complete homework assignments. A comparison of the results of the pre-and post-intervention surveys was mixed. Post-intervention data at the high school sites showed that the homework completion rate did not change significantly. Although the results at the high school were not dramatic, the interventions for some individual students were extremely effective. All sites believed that the most successful and influential parts of the intervention for students was to stress the teaching of homework and organizational skills coupled with increasing parental involvement. (Contains 28 references, 11 appendixes, and 6 figures.) (JDM)

Descriptors: Attendance Patterns; *Change Strategies; Educational Strategies; Elementary Secondary Education; Family School Relationship; *Homework; Intervention; Organization; Outcomes of Education; Parent Participation; Program Development; *Student Motivation; Student Responsibility; Teachers
Identifiers: United States (Midwest)


EJ582477 PS529163
Title: The Homework Ate My Family.
Author(s) Ratnesar, Romesh; And Others
Source: Time, v153 n3 p54-63 Jan 25, 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0040-781X
Availability: Time Inc., Time & Life Building, Rockefeller Center, New York, NY 10020-1393.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1999

Explores the often-negative impact homework assignments pose for students already short of time, and for their parents. Includes case vignettes and sidebars on the effects of poverty on homework environments, how technology will affect homework assignments, and treating homework as an opportunity rather than as a threat. (HTH)

Descriptors: Extracurricular Activities; Family Environment; *Homework; Outcomes of Education; *Parent Attitudes; *Parent Student Relationship; *Student Attitudes; Student Employment; Teaching Methods; *Time Factors (Learning)
Identifiers: Gardner (Howard)


EJ571171 TM521137
Title: Relationships among Attitudes about Homework, Amount of Homework Assigned and Completed, and Student Achievement.
Author(s) Cooper, Harris; Lindsay, James J.; Nye, Barbara; Greathouse, Scott
Source: Journal of Educational Psychology, v90 n1 p70-83 Mar 1998
Publication Date: 1998
Notes: Research supported by Office of Educational Research and Improvement Grant R117E40309. Journal availability: American Psychological Assn., 750 1st St., NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJAPR1999

The amount of homework assigned and completed, and attitudes about homework, were studied through questionnaires completed by 709 students, their parents, and 82 teachers. Differences in student, parent, and teacher perceptions of the amount of homework assigned and completed are discussed. In the lower grades, amount of homework completed helped predict class grades. (SLD)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Elementary School Students; Elementary Secondary Education; Grades (Scholastic); *Homework; Parent Attitudes; Prediction; Questionnaires; Secondary School Students; *Student Attitudes; Teacher Attitudes


EJ565458 IR537322
Title: Helping with Homework: A Parent's Guide to Information Problem-Solving.
Author(s) Berkowitz, Robert
Source: Emergency Librarian, v25 n4 p45-46 Mar-Apr 1998
Publication Date: 1998
Notes: For journal availability see new title, Teacher Librarian.
ISSN: 0315-8888
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); ERIC product (071); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJDEC1998
Target Audience: Parents

Summarizes the Big6 Skills information problem-solving approach: (1) Task Definition; (2) Information Seeking Strategies; (3) Location and Access; (4) Use of Information; (5) Synthesis; and (6) Evaluation. Discusses parent and student roles in information problem solving, the value of assignments, and technology and the Big Six. (PEN)

Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Information Literacy; *Information Skills; Information Technology; Parent Participation; *Parent Role; Parent Student Relationship; *Problem Solving; *Student Role
Identifiers: *Big Six; ERIC Digests


EJ576389 SP527111
Title: Creating Success.
Author(s) Nuzum, Margaret
Source: Instructor, v108 n3 p86-91 Oct 1998
Publication Date: 1998
Notes: This issue is from the Primary version of Instructor.
ISSN: 1049-5851
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL1999
Target Audience: Practitioners; Teachers

To improve homework quality in the classroom, teachers should clear up homework fogginess and use strategies for success, including creating goal-directed assignments, balancing homework, allowing time to finish assignments, viewing homework-assignment time as part of the learning process, helping students organize their homework, and helping students and parents estimate the amount of time to spend on homework. (SM)

Descriptors: Elementary Education; *Homework; *Parent Role; Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Teacher Responsibility; Time on Task


EJ595094 FL529729
Title: Changing Homework Habits: Rethinking Attitudes.
Author(s) Tavares, Liliana
Source: Forum, v36 n1 Jan-Mar 1998
Publication Date: 1998
Availability: Web site: http://e.usia.gov/forum/
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY2000

Discusses eight suggestions that teachers can use for enhancing their students' interest in homework. (Author/VWL)

Descriptors: *Homework; *Student Attitudes; *Student Motivation; Study Habits; *Teacher Attitudes


EJ575283 EC620074
Title: Teacher-Selected Strategies for Improving Homework Completion.
Author(s) Bryan, Tanis; Sullivan-Burstein, Karen
Source: Remedial and Special Education, v19 n5 p263-75 Sep-Oct 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 0741-9325
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJJUL1999

Three studies examined the effects of different interventions used with elementary students with learning disabilities and typical students on spelling and math homework completion and weekly quiz performance. Three intervention strategies resulted in significant increases in homework completion: giving students real-life assignments, using homework planners, and graphing homework completion. (Author/CR)

Descriptors: Assignments; *Classroom Techniques; Elementary Education; *Homework; Instructional Design; *Learning Disabilities; Mathematics Instruction; *Performance Factors; *Self Management; Spelling; *Student Motivation; Tests


ED425862 PS027242
Title: "Did You Complete All Your Homework Tonight, Dear?"
Author(s) O'Rourke-Ferrara, Catherine
Pages: 28
Publication Date: 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Opinion papers (120); Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY1999

Homework is often controversial, especially in the lower grades. This paper begins by surveying research pertaining to homework in elementary school and identifying the goals and objectives of the homework process. The discussion of the literature covers: (1) views on homework through the 20th century; (2) a need for homework policies; (3) advantages of homework; (4) disadvantages of homework; (5) effects of homework at each grade level; (6) comparison of the United States to other countries; and (7) making homework work. The paper next presents ideas for teachers, parents, and students regarding homework, including a recommended homework policy, a parents' checklist for monitoring study, and sample letter to parents about homework. The paper then describes a survey about homework habits administered to 40 parents and 60 students in second grade. Findings indicated that 83 percent of parents like very much that their children get homework, and 78 percent of students also enjoy homework. Students indicated a belief that by doing homework, they will become smarter. (Contains 26 references.) (EV)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Comparative Education; Educational Practices; Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign Countries; *Homework; *Parent Attitudes; *Student Attitudes


EJ568132 SP526867
Title: When Mom and Dad Help: Student Reflections on Parent Involvement with Homework.
Author(s) Balli, Sandra J.
Source: Journal of Research and Development in Education, v31 n3 p142-46 Spr 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 0022-426X
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB1999

Investigated sixth-grade students' perceptions of parental involvement with homework. Students completed mathematics homework assignments designed to involve parents, then completed surveys examining their experiences. Significant numbers of students believed they did better in school when parents helped with homework, but they had mixed perceptions about how much they enjoyed working with their parents. (Author/SM)

Descriptors: *Elementary School Students; Grade 6; *Homework; Intermediate Grades; Middle Schools; *Parent Participation; *Parent Student Relationship; *Parents as Teachers; *Student Attitudes


EJ566648 PS527837
Title: Homework Doesn't Help.
Author(s) Begley, Sharon
Source: Newsweek, v131 n13 p50-51 Mar 30 1998
Publication Date: 1998
ISSN: 0028-9604
Availability: Newsweek, P.O. Box 59967, Boulder, CO 80322-9967; 800-631-1040.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJJAN1999

Examines research indicating that while homework assigned at the middle school level does improve achievement, homework in the lower grades appears to undermine children's school attitudes and to have little effect on their school performance. Suggests goals and characteristics of useful homework assignments. (HTH)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Elementary Education; Elementary School Students; *Homework; Learning Activities; Middle Schools; Performance Factors; *Student Attitudes; Teaching Methods


EJ562882 IR536916
Title: Helping with Homework.
Author(s) Eisenberg, Mike
Source: Big6 Newsletter, v1 n1 p4-5 Sep-Oct 1997
Publication Date: 1997
Availability: Linworth Publishing, Inc., 480 E. Wilson Bridge Rd., Suite L, Worthington, OH 43085-2372.
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1998

Discussion of the parents' role in homework highlights use of the Big6 Skills to focus on information literacy and information problem-solving processes rather than focusing on having parents help with the actual subject area content. The emphasis is on having parents act as guides and helpers rather than as teachers. (LRW)

Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; *Information Literacy; Information Skills; Information Utilization; *Parent Role; *Parent Student Relationship; Problem Solving
Identifiers: *Big Six


ED418699 IR056227
Title: Helping with Homework: A Parent's Guide to Information Problem-Solving.
Author(s) Eisenberg, Michael B.; Berkowitz, Robert E.
Author Affiliation: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse, NY.(BBB30993)
Pages: 172
Publication Date: June 1996
Notes: For ERIC Digest of same name, see IR 056 251.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (EDD00036)
Contract No: RR93002009
Report No: ISBN-0-937597-42-2; IR-102
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC07 Plus Postage.
Availability: Information Resources Publications, Syracuse University, 4-194 Center for Science and Technology, Syracuse, NY 13244-4100 ($20, plus $3 shipping and handling).
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Non-classroom (055); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIESEP1998
Target Audience: Parents

The purpose of this book is to help parents become partners in their children's success in school by offering them practical ways to help with homework and assignments. Parents can use the Big Six Skills information problem-solving process to effectively deal with the abundance of information available from many sources and guide their children through school assignments. The Big Six Skills apply to any problem or activity that requires a solution or result based on information: task definition, information seeking strategies, location and access, use of information, synthesis, and evaluation. There are six chapters in the book: (1) "The Big Six Approach: A Framework for Helping Children"; (2) "What Your Children Face Every Day in School: Assignments"; (3) "The Big Six Applied: A Framework for Helping Children with Homework"; (4) "Computers, the Internet, and Other Technologies: Can They Really Make a Difference?" (5) "Assisting with Assignments: Examples from Various Subjects"; and (6) "Bringing It All Together: A Parent Conversation with Mike and Bob." Appendices include the Big Six Assignment Organizer, applying the Big Six to sample homework assignments, Big Six Skills overhead transparency masters and bookmark, background information on the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), and a selected bibliography of ERIC documents. (Author/SWC)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Access to Information; Computer Uses in Education; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; Information Seeking; *Information Skills; Information Utilization; Internet; *Learning Strategies; Library Skills; *Parent Role; *Problem Solving; Research Skills; Student Role; Study Skills; *Thinking Skills; Users (Information)
Identifiers: Conceptual Frameworks; ERIC


EJ505129 EC611420
Title: Homework: A Survey of Primary Students in Regular, Resource, and Self-
Contained Special Education Classrooms.
Author(s) Bryan, Tanis; And Others
Source: Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, v10 n2 p85-90 Spr 1995
Publication Date: 1995
ISSN: 0938-8982
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1995

This survey examined experiences and beliefs regarding homework of primary-grade children (n=809), of whom 91 were in resource room programs and 17 in special education classrooms. Overall, results indicated that children in the resource rooms were experiencing the greatest amount of difficulty in doing homework and had acquired the most negative views about homework. (DB)

Descriptors: Beliefs; *Disabilities; *Homework; *Mainstreaming; Primary Education; *Resource Room Programs; *Special Classes; *Student Attitudes; Student Motivation; Student Surveys


ED388436 PS023755
Title: Helping Your Child with Homework: For Parents of Elementary and Junior High School-Aged Children.
Author(s) Paulu, Nancy; Perkinson, Kathryn, Ed.
Author Affiliation: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.(EDD00036)
Pages: 52
Publication Date: September 1995
Report No: AD-95-1203
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1996
Government Level: Federal
Target Audience: Parents

This booklet is designed to provide parents of elementary and junior high school students with an understanding the purpose and nature of homework and suggestions for helping their children complete homework assignments successfully. After a discussion of why teachers assign homework, how homework can help children learn, and the optimum amount of homework for students at different grade levels, the booklet provides specific suggestions for parents to help their children complete homework assignments, including setting a regular time for homework, picking a quiet place, removing distractions, providing appropriate supplies and resources, setting a good example, and showing interest in their homework. It also discusses ways for parents to monitor their children's homework assignments, provide guidance to their children on assignments, and talk with teachers or administrators about homework problems. A checklist on helping children with homework is included. (MDM)

Descriptors: Age Differences; Check Lists; Elementary School Students; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; Junior High School Students; *Parent Role; Parent School Relationship; *Parent Student Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; Parents as Teachers


EJ491147 EC609677
Title: Doing Homework: Perspectives of Elementary and Junior High School Students.
Author(s) Bryan, Tanis; Nelson, Carol
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities, v27 n8 p488-99 Oct 1994
Publication Date: 1994
ISSN: 0022-2194
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB1995

Analysis of survey responses of elementary and junior high students (n=1,527) in regular, resource, and self-contained special education classrooms found significant main effects for group, grade, and group by grade interactions for amount, type, and time spent doing homework; opportunity to do homework at school; parents' assistance; and students' attitudes about homework, grading, and school. (Author/DB)

Descriptors: *Disabilities; *Homework; Intermediate Grades; Junior High Schools; Parent Role; *Resource Room Programs; *Special Classes; Statistical Analysis; *Student Attitudes; Surveys


EJ491146 EC609676
Title: Homework: A Survey of Policies in the United States.
Author(s) Roderique, Tess W.; And Others
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities, v27 n8 p481-87 Oct 1994
Publication Date: 1994
ISSN: 0022-2194
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB1995
Target Audience: Policymakers

Respondents (n=297) to a national survey of school districts concerning homework policies found that 35.2% of school districts surveyed had a policy on homework, with 64.4% of those policies including modifications for students with disabilities. Findings on frequency and amount of homework assigned, as well as home-school communication mechanisms, are highlighted. (Author/DB)

Descriptors: *Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; *Homework; National Surveys; Parent School Relationship; School Districts; *School Policy


EJ483450 EC608545
Title: Using Student-Managed Interventions to Increase Homework Completion and Accuracy.
Author(s) Olympia, Daniel E.; And Others
Source: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, v27 n1 p85-99 Spr 1994
Publication Date: 1994
ISSN: 0021-8855
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP1994

This study found that, after self-management training and implementation of self-managed individual and group contingency procedures, 16 sixth-grade students having homework difficulties in mathematics made substantial improvements in amount of homework completed. Students who selected their own goals did better than students who were given a specified goal. (Author/DB)

Descriptors: Contingency Management; *Goal Orientation; *Homework; Intermediate Grades; *Learning Problems; Mathematics; Self Evaluation (Individuals); *Self Management; Student Educational Objectives