Full-Day Kindergarten
Amanda Miller
2001 (Last updated April 2005)

What are the various kinds of kindergarten schedules?

A full-day kindergarten program is a program in which a child attends school each weekday for approximately six hours. Two other types of programs are half-day kindergarten programs, in which the child attends school each weekday for 2½-3 hours in either the morning or the afternoon, and alternate-day kindergarten programs, in which the child attends school every other weekday.

How common are full-day kindergarten programs?

There has been a trend away from half-day or alternate-day kindergarten schedules and toward full-day kindergarten in many school districts. "In the fall of 1998, about 4 million children were attending kindergarten," says a National Center for Educational Statistics study. "[Fifty-five] percent [of kindergartners] were in full-day programs and 45 percent were in part-day programs" (West et al., 2000). Changes in American society and education over the last 20 years—such as the increase in single-parent and dual-employment households and the fact that most children now spend a significant part of the day away from home—have contributed to the popularity of all-day (every day) kindergarten programs in many communities (Gullo, 1990). Studies show that parents favor a full-day program that reduces the number of transitions kindergartners experience in a typical day (Housden & Kam, 1992; Johnson, 1993). Research also suggests that many children benefit more, academically and socially, during the primary years from participation in full-day programs than from participation in half-day kindergarten programs (Cryan et al., 1992; Karweit, 1992; Gullo, 2000; Rothenberg, 1995).

What are the characteristics of effective full-day kindergarten programs?

Full-day kindergarten allows children and teachers time to explore topics in depth, reduces the ratio of transition time to class time, provides for greater continuity of day-to-day activities, and provides an environment that favors a more developmentally appropriate approach to the curriculum. Recent research indicates that, compared with children in formal academically oriented programs, children in kindergarten programs that provided more child-initiated and informal activities rated their abilities significantly higher, had higher expectations for success on academic tasks, and were less dependent on adults for permission and approval (Stipek et al., 1995).

Observers of trends in kindergarten scheduling argue that changing the length of the kindergarten day begs the underlying issue of creating developmentally and individually appropriate learning environments for all kindergarten children, regardless of the length of the school day (Karweit, 1992; Katz, 1995).

Experts urge teachers, administrators, and parents to resist the temptation to provide full-day programs that are didactic and academically focused rather than intellectually engaging in tone. Seat work, worksheets, and early instruction in reading or other academic subjects are inappropriate for most kindergarten children. By contrast, developmentally appropriate, informal, intellectually engaging all-day kindergarten programs

  • integrate new learning with past experiences through project work and through mixed-ability and mixed-age grouping (Drew & Law, 1990; Katz, 1995) in an unhurried setting;
  • involve children in first-hand experience and informal interaction with objects, other children, and adults (Housden & Kam, 1992);
  • emphasize language development and appropriate preliteracy experiences;
  • make it easier to work with parents to share information about their children, and build understanding of parent and teacher roles;
  • emphasize reading to children in school and at home, and set the stage for later parent-teacher partnerships;
  • offer a balance of small group, large group, and individual activities (Katz, 1995);
  • assess students' progress through close teacher observation and systematic collection and examination of students' work, often by using portfolios; and
  • develop children's social skills, including conflict resolution strategies (Rothenberg, 1995).

What are the effects of full-day kindergarten programs?

A growing body of research continues to examine the effects of full-day kindergarten (Clark & Kirk, 2000). These studies suggest that full-day kindergarten programs produce learning gains that are at least as great as, and usually greater than, the learning gains of half-day kindergarten programs. No studies to date show greater gains, academic or developmental, for students in half-day programs over those for students in full-day programs. Also, a number of studies focusing on disadvantaged students showed greater learning gains for students in full-day kindergarten programs. Of the limited number of studies of the long-term effects of full-day kindergarten, several suggest that some long-term learning gains exist.

Cryan et al.'s work (1992) is among the studies that have found a broad range of effects, including a positive relationship between participation in full-day kindergarten and later academic success. After comparing similar half-day and full-day programs in a statewide longitudinal study, Cryan et al. found that full-day kindergartners exhibited more independent learning, classroom involvement, productivity in work with peers, and reflectivity than half-day kindergartners. They were also more likely to approach the teacher and they expressed less withdrawal, anger, shyness, and blaming behavior than half-day kindergartners. In general, children in full-day programs exhibited more positive behaviors than did pupils in half-day or alternate-day programs. Results similar to those of Cryan et al. have been found in other studies (Holmes & McConnell, 1990; Karweit, 1992). Clark and Kirk's (2000) recent review of the research also finds evidence in several studies for these positive effects.

References

Clark, Patricia, & Kirk, Elizabeth. (2000). All-day kindergarten. Review of research. Childhood Education, 76(4), 228-31. (ERIC Journal No. EJ606950)

Cryan, John R.; Sheehan, Robert; Wiechel, Jane; & Bandy-Hedden, Irene G. (1992). Success outcomes of full-day kindergarten: More positive behavior and increased achievement in the years after. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7(2), 187-203. (ERIC Journal No. EJ450525)

Drew, Mary, & Law, Carolyn. (1990). Making early childhood education work. Principal, 69(5), 10-12. (ERIC Journal No. EJ410163)

Gullo, Dominic F. (1990). The changing family context: Implications for the development of all-day kindergartens. Young Children, 45(4), 35-39. (ERIC Journal No. EJ409110)

Gullo, Dominic. (2000). Long-term educational effects of half-day vs. full-day kindergarten. Early Child Development and Care, 160, 17-24. (ERIC Journal No. 603880)

Holmes, C. Thomas, & McConnell, Barbara M. (1990). Full-day versus half-day kindergarten: An experimental study. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA. (ERIC Document No. ED369540)

Housden, Theresa, & Kam, Rose. (1992). Full-day kindergarten: A summary of the research. Carmichael, CA: San Juan Unified School District. (ERIC Document No. ED345868)

Johnson, Jessie. (1993). Language development component: All day kindergarten program 1991-1992. Final evaluation report. Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Chapter 1. Columbus, OH: Columbus Public Schools Dept. of Program Evaluation. (ERIC Document No. ED363406)

Karweit, Nancy. (1992). The kindergarten experience. Educational Leadership, 49(6), 82-86. (ERIC Journal No. EJ441182)

Katz, Lilian. (1995). Talks with teachers of young children: A collection. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. (ERIC Document No. ED380232)

Rothenberg, Dianne. (1995). Full-day kindergarten programs. ERIC Digest [Online]. Available: http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/eecearchive/digests/1995/drkind95.html

Stipek, Deborah; Feiler, Rachelle; Daniels, Denise; & Milburn, Sharon. (1995). Effects of different instructional approaches on young children's achievement and motivation. Child Development 66(1), 209-223. (ERIC Journal No. EJ501879)

West, Jerry; Denton, Kristin; & Germino-Hausken, Elvira. (2000). America's kindergartners [Online]. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000070.pdf

Web Resources

Investing in Full-Day Kindergarten is Essential
http://www.strategiesforchildren.org/eea/6research_summaries/06_InvestFDK.pdf

Early Childhood: What Are the Advantages of Half-Day Kindergarten?
http://dpi.wi.gov/ec/ecadhfpg.html

Full-day and Half-day Kindergarten in the United States: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2004078

Recent Research on All Day Kindergarten [ERIC Digest]:
http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/eecearchive/digests/2001/clark01.html

Learning Trend: Kindergarten Becomes an All Day Affair:
http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0129/p01s03-ussc.html

Full-day Kindergarten
http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=843&FullBreadCrumb
=%3Ca+href%3D%22%2Fbrowse%2Fsearch.jsp%3Fquery%3DFull-day+Kindergarten

National All-Day Kindergarten Network
http://www.siue.edu/~snall/kdtn

What Should Parents Know about Full-Day Kindergarten?
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content3/full.day.kinder.p.k12.3.html

Education Question and Answer
http://school.familyeducation.com/kindergarten/school-selection/41278.html

Effects of All-Day and Half-Day Kindergarten Programming on Reading, Writing, Math, and Classroom Social Behaviors
http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Hildebrand,%20Charlene%20Effects%20of%20All-day%20and%20Half-day%20Kindergarten%20Programming.pdf

Extended-Day Kindergarten: Florence School District One, Florence County, South Carolina
http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/Extending/vol2/prof4.html

Full-Day vs. Half-Day Kindergarten: Which Children Learn More in Which Program?
http://strategiesforchildren.org/eea/6research_summaries/06_FDKvsHDK.pdf

Full-Day Kindergarten in Massachusetts
http://www.doe.mass.edu/els/kinder_factsheet.pdf

Parenting Perspectives: Full Day or Half Day Kindergarten? Suggestions for Parents
http://www.teachersandfamilies.com/open/parent/kg-day1.cfm

Other Resources

Stofflet, Frederick P. (1998). Anchorage school district full-day kindergarten study: A follow-up of the kindergarten classes of 1987-88, 1988-89, and 1989-90. Anchorage, AK: Anchorage School District. (ERIC Document No. ED426790)

Education Commission of the States' Study on Full Day Kindergarten (Fall, 2002 announcement)

The Education Commission of the States (ECS) is pleased to announce that the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) recently awarded ECS a grant to undertake a study examining financing of, and access to, full-day kindergarten in the United States. Given the lack of extensive and reliable data on state and district implementation of full-day kindergarten, this project provides a timely opportunity to clearly define and describe current public policy efforts around full-day kindergarten. The primary objectives of this effort are to: [1] produce a clear and comprehensive profile of the funding availability and utilization of full-day kindergarten programs across the 50 states; and [2] provide information -- based on state, district, and school-level case studies -- to education policymakers and other key stakeholders in order to better inform policy action around full-day kindergarten.

This research effort will be conducted over a 21-month period and will have four levels of analysis: a broad overview of all 50 states' policies and practices; a more in-depth study of seven states and their districts; case studies of approximately 50 districts within the seven states; and case studies of approximately 10 local schools.

If you are interested in more information on this study, or feel that your state is a good candidate for in-depth study, please contact Kristie Kauerz
ECS Program Director, Early Childhood, at 303.299.3662 or kkauerz@ecs.org. States will be selected based on a number of criteria, including recent policy efforts around full-day kindergarten (successful or unsuccessful).

Table 3. Nursery and Primary School Enrollment of People 3 to 6 Years Old, by Control of School, Attendance Status, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, Mother's Labor Force Status and Education, and Family Income: October 2007. This includes number in full-day kindergarten.
http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/school/cps2007/tab03.xls

ERIC Resources

How to Obtain ERIC Documents and Journal Articles:

References identified with an ED (ERIC document)or EJ (ERIC journal) are cited in the ERIC database. ERIC Documents (citations identified by an ED number) may be available in full text from ERIC at no cost at the ERIC Web site: http://eric.ed.gov. Journal articles are available from the original journal, interlibrary loan services, or article reproduction clearinghouses.

If you would like to conduct your own free ERIC database searches via the Internet, go directly to http://eric.ed.gov/

Full-Day Kindergarten

ERIC database search through 4/2005

ED482855 PS031694
Title: First Things First: Pre-Kindergarten as the Starting Point for Education Reform.
Author Affiliation: Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.(BBB00201)
Pages: 33
Publication Date: October 2003
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: Foundation for Child Development, 145 East 32nd Street, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10016-6055. Tel: 212-213-8337; Fax: 212-213-5897; Web site: http://www.ffcd.org. For full text: http://www.ffcd.org/pdfs/FCD-AR.pdf.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL2004

This annual report highlights the grantmaking program of the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) over the past 6 years, reflects on lessons learned, and shares emerging directions for the foundation. A list of selected FCD resources related to universal prekindergarten and full-day kindergarten is included in the report. In addition, a list of grants for universal prekindergarten and full-day kindergarten from 1997 to 2003 illustrate the evolution of the FCD focus from child care to universal prekindergarten and full-day kindergarten. Also included in the annual report is information on funding guidelines, and a financial statement. Closing the report is a list of the board of directors, council members, and FCD staff. (KB)

Descriptors: Annual Reports; Child Care; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Educational Change; *Educational Policy; Educational Quality; Full Day Half Day Schedules; Kindergarten; *Philanthropic Foundations; *Preschool Children; Preschool Curriculum; *Preschool Education
Identifiers: *Foundation for Child Development; *Universal Preschool


ED473694 PS031062
Title: At the Starting Line: Early Childhood Education Programs in the 50 States.
Author(s): Griffin, Darion; Lundy-Ponce, Giselle
Author Affiliation: American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.(FGK01812)
Pages: 92
Publication Date: December 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Availability: American Federation of Teachers, Order Department, 555 New Jersey
Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20001 ($3; single copy, pre-paid). Tel: 202-393-5684; Fax: 202-393-6371; Web site: http://www.aft.org. For full text: http://www.aft.org/edissues/downloads/EarlyChildhoodreport.pdf.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; District of Columbia
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2003

Advocating an early childhood education structure that is state-supported, accountable for high standards, sufficiently funded to include all children who need it and whose parents want it, and comparable to the systems of other high-achieving industrialized nations, this report provides baseline information about U.S. states' provision of early childhood education, including policies of preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and kindergarten for 5-year-olds. Findings include the following: (7) 7 states fund full- and half-day kindergarten and require kindergarten enrollment. In light of these findings, the report includes a set of recommendations to states for taking next steps to promote highquality, universal early childhood education, including: (2) guarantee full-day kindergarten for all children whose families want them to participate; (Contains 54 references.) (HTH)

Descriptors: *Change Strategies; Compensation (Remuneration); *Early Childhood Education; Educational Finance; *Educational Improvement; *Educational Needs; Educational Policy; Educational Quality; Financial Support; Full Day Half Day Schedules; Kindergarten; Preschool Children; State Aid; State Standards; Teacher Characteristics; Teacher Qualifications
Identifiers: Program Characteristics; Universal Preschool


ED472733 PS031001
Title: Full-Day Kindergarten: Exploring an Option for Extended Learning.
Author(s): Brewster, Cori; Railsback, Jennifer
Author Affiliation: Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.(RIK65325)
Pages: 61
Publication Date: December 2002
Notes: Published quarterly for NWREL member institutions.
Sponsoring Agency: Department of Education, Washington, DC. (EDD00001)
Contract No: ED-01-CO-0013
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.
Availability: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 101 S.W. Main Street, Suite 500, Portland, OR 97204-3297. Tel: 505-275-9720; Web site: http://www.nwrel.org/request.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); Information Analysis (070); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Oregon
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2003
Government Level: Federal
Target Audience: Parents; Practitioners; Policymakers

Noting that full-day kindergarten has become an increasingly popular scheduling option in U.S. schools during the past 30 years, this booklet provides a brief review of recent literature on full-day programs and highlights important considerations for educators, policymakers, and parents assessing their kindergarten options. The booklet also profiles several full-day kindergarten programs in place in northwestern U.S. schools. Following introductory remarks, the booklet examines issues related to the curricular content of the extra time, school readiness, and cost. It is noted that drawing conclusions from the existing research is not easy, in part because kindergarten practices and student populations vary widely and because there are few studies in which students are assigned randomly to full- and half-day classrooms. Benefits of full-day kindergarten for students, parents, and teachers are delineated. The booklet also lists characteristics of effective kindergarten programs and offers tips for implementing successful full-day kindergarten programs. Questions to guide parents in considering which program will work best for their kindergarten child are included. The booklet then lists considerations for policymakers. Four profiles are provided of schools offering full- or extended-day kindergarten programs in the northwest; the profiles include staff-observed outcomes/benefits and challenges of the full-day program and keys to success. The booklet concludes by noting that choosing a kindergarten schedule depends on multiple factors, including the students needs; the needs and wishes of parents, teachers, administrators, and community members; and the availability of space, teachers, funding, and other resources. Also included are a 6-item annotated bibliography of studies on full-day kindergarten and a list of resources. (Contains 32 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Educational Improvement; Elementary School Curriculum; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Preschool Curriculum; Program Descriptions; School Readiness; *School Schedules
Identifiers: Program Characteristics; United States (Northwest)


ED472545 PS030965
Title: Results for Rhode Island's Children: Progress and Challenges. A Report by Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Based on the Goals of the Rhode Island Children's Cabinet.
Author Affiliation: Rhode Island KIDS COUNT, Providence.(BBB34310)
Pages: 39
Publication Date: December 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: Rhode Island Kids Count, One Union Station, Providence, RI 02903. Tel: 401-351-9400; Fax: 401-351-1758; e-mail: rikids@rikidscount.org; Web site: http://www.rikidscount.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Rhode Island
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2003

This Kids Count report examines trends in the well-being of Rhode Island's children, highlighting progress made in reaching the goals for children set by the Rhode Island Children's Cabinet in 1997 and discussing the remaining challenges. This statistical portrait is based on trends in 24 indicators of child well being: (1) prenatal care; (2) health insurance; (3) immunizations; (4) lead poisoning; (5) early care and education; (6) full-day kindergarten; (7) reading proficiency in fourth grade; (8) high performing schools; (9) English language learners; (10) school-age child care; (11) births to teens; (12) high school graduation; (13) homeless children; (14) children witnessing domestic violence; (15) child abuse and neglect; (16) out-of-home placement; (17) teen violent crime; (18) youth at the training school; (19) children in poverty; (20) median household income; (21) housing costs; (22) educational attainment; (23) children enrolled in the Family Independence Program; and (24) child care and health insurance supports for working families. The report's introduction presents a letter from Rhode Island Kids Count and the Children's cabinet detailing the 1997 goals and summarizing the findings; the introduction also includes demographic information on Rhode Island's children. The remainder of the report presents findings for each indicator, with trend data back to the late 1980s for some indicators, and with racial/ethnic or geographic area differences noted as available. For each indicator, the following is noted: (1) its importance for children's well-being; (2) progress made; and (3) challenges remaining. The report notes that the state is moving toward meeting its goals, but that significant disparities remain in outcomes among different racial, ethnic, and economic groups. (KB)

Descriptors: *Adolescents; Child Abuse; Child Care; *Child Health; Child Neglect; *Children; Costs; Crime; Early Childhood Education; Early Parenthood; Educational Attainment; Educational Indicators; English (Second Language); Excellence in Education; Family Income; Family Support; Family Violence; Full Day Half Day Schedules; Graduation Rate; Health Insurance; Homeless People; Housing; Immunization Programs; Kindergarten; Lead Poisoning; Parents; Poverty; Prenatal Care; Reading Achievement; School Age Child Care; *Social Indicators; Student Placement; Trend Analysis; *Well Being
Identifiers: Childrens Health Insurance Program; Detention; *Indicators; Out of Home Care; *Rhode Island; Subsidized Child Care Services; Vaccination; Welfare to Work Programs; Witnesses to Violence


ED468942 CS511491
Title: The Efficacy of an Extended-Day Kindergarten Program: A Report for the St. James School Division (1999-2000, 2000-2001).
Author(s) Zakaluk, Beverley L.; Straw, Stanley B.
Pages: 93
Publication Date: April 2002
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC04 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Numerical/Quantitative Data (110); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: Canada; Manitoba
Journal Announcement: RIEMAY2003

This report documents the efficacy of the full- and three-quarter-day kindergarten options instituted in economically disadvantaged areas in the St. James-Assiniboia School Division (Manitoba, Canada) for the school years 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. The report describes findings from a comprehensive set of data analyses covering the literacy performance of students in both kindergarten options for each of the years 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. The emergent literacy performance of students in each option was first compared to the performance of students in 1997-1998, before implementation of the extended-day project (cohort group) and then to divisional norms in each year of implementation. Next, performance in each year was compared to the performance of a control group and, at the same time, to the performance of students in the regular half-day program. The final comparisons, and perhaps the most corroborative, examined literacy task gains from the beginning to the end of the 2000-2001 school year, the year in which complete pretest/posttest control and division-wide data sets were available. Since complete pre- and posttest control and division-wide data for numeracy were not available, evaluation of numeracy development in 1999-2000 was based on a comparison of the full-day option and the three-quarter-day option only. Results indicated that, in terms of literacy development, attending full-day kindergarten is superior to attending three-quarter or half day kindergarten. Regarding numeracy, across two years of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of the extended day programs except that in year 2 the full-day students appeared to grow more rapidly on all the numeracy measures. Recommendations include: consider eliminating the three-quarter-day kindergarten option; continue to monitor early literacy and numeracy performance of kindergarten students; and provide ongoing support for kindergarten school staff. Contains 42 references and numerous unnumbered tables, graphs, and figures. Five tables are appended. (NKA)

Descriptors: Data Analysis; Educational Research; *Extended School Day; Foreign Countries; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Literacy; Low Income; *Numeracy; Pretests Posttests; Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; *Public Schools


EJ648685 EA539682
Title: Kindergarten Student Progress: Acquisition of Reading Skills, 2000-2001.
Author(s) Bridges-Cline, Frances; Hoffler-Riddick, Pamela Y.; Gross, Susan
Source: ERS Spectrum, v20 n2 p18-27 Spr 2002
Publication Date: 2002
ISSN: 0740-7874
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJNOV2002

Reports assessment of the first-year results of several new kindergarten initiatives in Montgomery County Public Schools. Finds that students attending full-day, reduced class-size kindergarten programs had significant gains in the acquisition of foundational reading skills. Programs also reduced reading-skills gap between high-risk student graduates of Head Start and kindergarten students without risk factors. (PKP)

Descriptors: Class Size; Demography; *English (Second Language); *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *High Risk Students; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Poverty; *Primary Education; Reading Skills; Student Evaluation
Identifiers: Montgomery County Public Schools MD; *Project Head Start


EJ624722 EA538206
Title: Early Learners: Are Full-Day Academic Kindergartens Too Much, Too Soon?
Author(s) Natale, Jo Anna
Source: American School Board Journal, v188 n3 p22-25 Mar 2001
Publication Date: 2001
ISSN: 0003-0953
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT2001

Although most people believe that schools exist to help children learn and achieve, some wonder why children's instruction must be hurried and why kindergarten is becoming so academic. Full-day programs, which accommodate parents' work schedules, are now commonplace; they may benefit some disadvantaged kids more than their affluent counterparts. (MLH)

Descriptors: *Academic Education; *Developmentally Appropriate Practices; Disadvantaged Youth; *Discovery Learning; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; Kindergarten; Middle Class; Public Schools; *Skill Development; Young Children
Identifiers: Elkind (David)


ED451938 PS029401
Title: A Comparison of the Literacy Effects of Full Day vs. Half-Day Kindergarten.
Author(s) da Costa, Jose L.; Bell, Susan
Pages: 19
Publication Date: April 2001
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
Journal Announcement: RIESEP2001

This study examined the effects of full-day kindergarten on students' development of literacy skills as measured by Clay's Observation Survey, focusing on the impact for Canadian schools serving students from low socioeconomic or educationally deprived backgrounds. Data were collected from two schools offering full-day programs and one school offering half-day kindergarten to students in two classes. The schools offering full-day programs served similar, diverse, low socioeconomic status inner city populations. The school with half-day kindergarten served children of various ethnic backgrounds with a broad range of socioeconomic needs and was located in a suburban area. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with kindergarten teachers near the end of the academic year and a pre-post assessment of students' literacy skills. Analyses of the interviews involved the use of narrative accounts to support emerging themes regarding the beliefs held by participant teachers and their emphases in the four classrooms. Findings indicated that both schools offering full-time kindergarten had a literacy and numeracy emphasis at the center of their mandates. The school offering half-day kindergarten supported a theme-based balanced literacy approach with activity centers structured to reinforce the themes being addressed. All four teachers shared similar views and beliefs about how best to teach children. Students in the full-day program experienced significantly greater growth in the prerequisite skills for reading than children in the half-day program, after taking into account previous ability, age, and gender. Findings led to recommendations regarding further research and educational policy. (Contains 13 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Educational Practices; *Emergent Literacy; Foreign Countries; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Low Income Groups; Outcomes of Education; Primary Education; School Schedules; Sex Differences; Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Canada


ED455012 PS029657
Title: Report of the Detroit Public Schools Kindergarten Teacher Survey, 1999-2000.
Author(s) Washington, Joyce, A.
Author Affiliation: Detroit Public Schools, MI. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.(BBB34624)
Pages: 35
Publication Date: June 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Michigan
Journal Announcement: RIEDEC2001

This study surveyed regular and extended-day kindergarten teachers in the Detroit public school system. Key findings included the following: (1) most respondents (63.6 percent) had 5 or more years experience in their current position; (2) respondents reported an average class size of 22.7 to 30.4 students; (3) most respondents perceived that their class enrollment had been steady over the past 2 or 3 years although actual enrollment had declined; and (4) teachers indicated that students and parents would benefit from full-day regular kindergarten, recommended additional fun activities such as field trips, and suggested that advertising would increase parent and community awareness. (Appendices contain the survey questions and responses, a list of participating schools, and a compilation of teacher comments and suggestions.) (EV)

Descriptors: Advertising; *Enrollment Trends; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Preschool Teachers; Primary Education; Program Improvement; *Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Surveys
Identifiers: *Detroit Public Schools MI; Program Characteristics


ED458948 PS029900
Title: Kindergarten: The Overlooked School Year. Working Paper Series.
Author(s) Vecchiotti, Sara
Author Affiliation: Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.(BBB00201)
Pages: 49
Publication Date: October 2001
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Availability: Foundation for Child Development, 145 East 32nd Street, 14th Floor, New York, NY 10016-6055. Tel: 212-213-8337; Fax: 212-213-5897; e-mail: guest6@ffcd.org. For full text: http://www.ffcd.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Opinion papers (120)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New York
Journal Announcement: RIEAPR2002

Based on the view that because kindergarten is caught between early childhood
education and compulsory public education, the year is often overlooked as an
important time for learning. This paper aims to mobilize interest in kindergarten as an educational issue ripe for research, debate, and policy action. The paper begins by briefly reviewing kindergarten history. Next, the provision of kindergarten is discussed using various state and federal data sources, with exploration of issues such as length of the kindergarten day, compulsory attendance, uncertainty about entrance age, and state differences. Current policy issues are presented, including kindergarten mandates, entrance age, curriculum and instructional methods, screening and assessment, delaying kindergarten entrance, teacher shortages, and the links between prekindergarten and kindergarten. Finally, suggestions for future research are made, as well as recommendations for state and federal policy action. Appended are lessons from New Mexico's full-day kindergarten campaign based on an interview with the executive director. (Contains 59 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Educational History; Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Preschool Curriculum; Preschool Teachers; Primary Education; *Public Policy; *Research Needs; School Entrance Age; Student Evaluation; Teacher Shortage


EJ606950
Title: All-Day Kindergarten. Review of Research.
Author: Clark, Patricia; Kirk, Elizabeth
Publication Date: 2000
Publication Type: 070; 080
Clearinghouse No: PS530458
ISSN: ISSN-0009-4056
Language: English
ERIC_Issue: CIJNOV2000
Journal Citation: Childhood Education; v76 n4 p228-31 Sum 2000

Summarizes research on the impact of all-day kindergarten on academic achievement and behavior. Examines parents' and teachers' attitudes toward all-day kindergarten. Reviews research on curriculum in all-day kindergartens. Concludes that all-day kindergarten impacts positively on academic achievement and behavior and that parents and teachers prefer the full-day schedule. Notes that what children do is more important than day length. (KB)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; Literature Reviews; Preschool Curriculum; Scheduling; State of the Art Reviews


ED440751 PS028498
Title: Full Day Kindergarten at an Inner City Elementary School: Perceived and Actual Effects.
Author(s) da Costa, Jose L.; Bell, Susan
Pages: 24
Publication Date: April 2000
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, LA, April 24-28, 2000).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: Canada; Alberta
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT2000

This study examined the actual and perceived effects of full-day kindergarten on students' growth in play and problem solving, language and literacy, and socioemotional development. Participating in the study were two kindergarten teachers and their classrooms serving similar diverse inner city populations in western Canada, one a half-day program and the other a full-day program. Data sources included semi-structured interviews with kindergarten staff, anecdotal comments generated by the teacher throughout the year for student report cards, quantitative data on student progress, and quantitative data on a comparison group of students in a half-day kindergarten. The findings indicated that both programs were generally in keeping with principles exhibited by exemplary programs. Instruction in both programs was focused on the whole child and emphasized the role of the learner in social context. All students in the full-day program experienced substantial growth over the course of the year in play and problem solving, language and literacy, and socioemotional development. The majority of the full-day students were either already reading or on the verge of reading independently. Full-day students experienced significantly greater growth in reading prerequisite skills than half-day students. Play-based instruction was highly effective for kindergartners. Full-day kindergarten may be especially beneficial for students of low socioeconomic backgrounds. The full-day program was only possible due to the donation of an anonymous benefactor. Based on findings, it was concluded that the sensitivity to detect differences between the two types of programs needs to be increased. (Contains 13 references.) (KB)

Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Emergent Literacy; Emotional Development; Foreign Countries; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Peer Relationship; Play; Primary Education; Problem Solving; Reading Skills; School Schedules; Social Development; Teacher Student Relationship; Urban Education
Identifiers: Canada (West); *Prereading Skills


EJ604846
Title: Which Is the Best Kindergarten?
Author: Nelson, Regena Fails
Publication Date: 2000
Journal Citation: Principal; v79 n5 p38-41 May 2000
Publication Type: 080; 142
Clearinghouse No: EA537083
ISSN: ISSN-0271-6062
Language: English
ERIC Issue: CIJOCT2000

Examines four types of kindergarten programs (developmental, multiage, full-day, and lower class size) to determine which best accommodates developmental differences while enhancing youngsters' readiness for formal schooling. Low-income, urban areas should implement full-day kindergarten programs and smaller classes in first through third grades. (MLH)

Descriptors: *Developmental Programs; Developmentally Appropriate Practices; *Diversity (Student); *Full Day Half Day Schedules; Individual Differences; *Kindergarten; Low Income Groups; *Mixed Age Grouping; Poverty Areas; Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; School Readiness; *Small Classes; Urban Schools


EJ603880 PS530417
Title: The Long Term Educational Effects of Half-Day vs Full-Day Kindergarten.
Author(s) Gullo, Dominic F.
Source: Early Child Development and Care, v160 p17-24 Feb 2000
Publication Date: 2000
ISSN: 0300-4430
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP2000

Examined effects of full-day and half-day kindergarten on 974 second graders' academic outcomes. Found that full-day children scored significantly higher in math and reading on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and had fewer absences than half-day children. Found that fewer children from full-day cohort had been retained in grade. Found no differences in special education referrals. (Author/KB)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Attendance; Comparative Analysis; Followup Studies; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; Grade Repetition; *Kindergarten; *Kindergarten Children; *Outcomes of Education; Performance Factors; Primary Education; Referral; Special Education; Time Factors (Learning)


ED436756 CS013810
Title: Literacy Instruction in Half- and Whole-Day Kindergarten: Research to Practice. Literacy Studies Series.
Author(s) Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Strickland, Dorothy S.; Woo, Deborah Gee
Author Affiliation: International Reading Association, Newark, DE.(EYV38140); National Reading Conference, Inc.(BBB09859)
Pages: 214
Publication Date: 1999
Sponsoring Agency: National Reading Research Center, Athens, GA. (BBB30638)@National Reading Research Center, College Park, MD. (BBB30639)
ISBN: 0-87207-188-X
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC09 Plus Postage.
Availability: Order Department, International Reading Association, 800 Barksdale Road, P.O. Box 8139, Newark, DE 19714-8139 ($24.95). Website: www.reading.org.
Language: English
Document Type: Book (010); Guides--Classroom--Teacher (052); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Delaware
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN2000

Outlining a kindergarten instruction program, this book addresses the length of the kindergarten day and the best practices in early literacy. After the introduction, "Literacy Instruction in Half- and Whole-Day Kindergarten: Research to Practice," chapters are: "Issues Concerning Half-Day and Whole-Day Kindergarten Programs"; "The Purpose of the Study, Methods, and Procedures"; "Results of the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis" (written with John Young); "Discussion of Results: Implications of the Data Analysis for Classroom Practice"; "Emergent Literacy Perspectives: Research to Practice"; "A Framework for the Literacy Curriculum"; "A Framework for Integrating Literacy into Content-Area Teaching"; "Creating a Framework for Literacy-Rich Environments"; and "Planning the Day: Organizing for Whole-Day and Half-Day Instruction." Appendixes contain suggestions for a unit on nutrition, study assessment measures, and sample anecdotes. Contains 137 references. (EF)

Descriptors: *Curriculum Development; *Emergent Literacy; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Instructional Development; Instructional Effectiveness; *Kindergarten; Primary Education; *Time Factors (Learning)
Identifiers: Curriculum Mapping; Kindergarten Extended Day Program; Literacy Assessment


EJ595656 PS529663
Title: Early Childhood Education Services for Kindergarten-Age Children in Four Canadian Provinces: Scope, Nature, and Future Models.
Author(s) Johnson, Laura C.; Mathien, Julie
Source: Canadian Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education, v7 n4 p69-80 Jul 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0827-0899
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJMAY2000

The Early Years Project examined the half-day kindergarten and half-day child-care system in Canada from the perspectives of parents, kindergarten teachers, and child-care staff. Findings indicated that parents support university-educated staff in early-childhood programs; were interested in new, coordinated program models; and, along with practitioners, considered 5-year olds ready for full-day programs. (DLH)

Descriptors: *Day Care; *Educational Policy; Foreign Countries; *Full Day Half Day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Parent Attitudes; *Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Canada


EJ589453 EA536124
Title: Evaluation of a Full-Day Kindergarten Program.
Author(s) Wang, Y. Lawrence; Johnstone, Whitcomb G.
Source: ERS Spectrum, v17 n2 p27-32 Spr 1999
Publication Date: 1999
ISSN: 0740-7874
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJFEB2000

Investigated differences in oral-language development, emergent literacy skills, mathematical reasoning and concepts, and behavior for full-day versus half-day kindergarten students in the Irving (Texas) Independent School District. Found statistically significant advantages for the full-day program, particularly for English-speaking students. (MLH)

Descriptors: *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Literacy; *Mathematical Concepts; *Oral Language; Primary Education; Program Evaluation; *Student Behavior
Identifiers: *Irving Independent School District TX


ED426790 PS027272
Title: Anchorage School District Full-Day Kindergarten Study: A Follow-up of the
Kindergarten Classes of 1987-88, 1988-89, and 1989-90.
Author(s) Stofflet, Frederick P.
Author Affiliation: Anchorage School District, AK.(BBB24259)
Pages: 103
Publication Date: October 1998
Available from: EDRS Price MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Alaska
Journal Announcement: RIEJUN1999

This study examined Anchorage School District (Alaska) kindergarten classes from 1987-88, 1988-89, and 1989-90; these years correspond to the last year in which there was no full-day kindergarten program in the district, and the first and second years of the district's full-day program. The study examined matriculation patterns, special education identification, middle school and high school credits and grade point averages, and norm referenced test results for students from those kindergarten classes who moved through the District's schools through the 1997-98 school year. The purpose of the study was to identify long-term effects, if any, of the full-day kindergarten program in Anchorage. The findings indicated that Anchorage students had the opportunity for success regardless of the type of kindergarten program they attended, but that not all students were successful. Factors such as individual student initiative, home life, and educational opportunities after kindergarten influenced students' later educational career and successes more that the type of kindergarten program attended. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the full- day program has been implemented successfully, offers students an immediate pay-off in preparation for first grade, and relates to success in middle school. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/SD)

Descriptors: Academic Achievement; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten; *Outcomes of Education; Primary Education; Program Effectiveness; Program Evaluation; School Organization; School Schedules
Identifiers: Anchorage School District AK; *Kindergarten Experience Comparison


ED417380 CS013107
Title: Full-Day Kindergarten vs. Half-Day Kindergarten: The Outcome of First Grade
Reading Achievement.
Author(s) Alber-Kelsay, Krista
Pages: 48
Publication Date: May 1998
Notes: M.A. Research Project, Kean University.
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Dissertations/Theses--Masters Dissertations (042); Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; New Jersey
Journal Announcement: RIEAUG1998

This study examined the hypothesis that children who had participated in a full-day kindergarten program would not show a significantly higher academic achievement in first grade as measured by the standardized portfolio assessment than children who participated in a half-day program. The study compared four portfolio assessment scores of two groups of first grade students in the East Brunswick Public School District (New Jersey). The first group consisted of 16 children who participated in a full-day kindergarten program, and the second group consisted of 61 children who participated in a half-day kindergarten program. Results showed that the full-day kindergarten sample scores were higher in all areas than the half-day kindergarten sample, however, only significantly higher in one area--the Developmental Spelling Assessment subtest of the standardized portfolio. Findings suggest support for the hypothesis. (Contains 5 tables of data, 4 footnotes, and 31 references; related research and 10 pages of scores are appended.) (Author/CR)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; Comparative Analysis; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Grade 1; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; *Portfolio Assessment; Primary Education; *Reading Achievement; Reading Research; School Schedules; Spelling; Time Factors (Learning)
Identifiers: East Brunswick School District NJ


ED408046 PS025445
Title: An Overview of Full-Day Kindergarten.
Author Affiliation: Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.(BBB28080)
Pages: 17
Publication Date: April 1997
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Information Analysis (070); Reports--Descriptive (141)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Ohio
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1997
Government Level: State

This document provides an overview of full-day kindergarten, identifying the states requiring local school districts to offer full-day kindergarten; summarizing some of the national research on the effects of full-day kindergarten classes; describing current kindergarten practices in Ohio; and explaining proposed state budget appropriations relating to full-day kindergarten. Nationally, 12 states and the District of Columbia require full-day kindergarten availability. The most positive impact of full-day kindergarten is on children at risk of retention or academic failure. In most studies, full-day students show somewhat higher academic or social achievement than half-day students, with the effects diminishing after second grade. The percentage of Ohio kindergartens which are full-day is less than the national average. A larger percentage of kindergarten classrooms are full-day in poor urban or rural areas. Interviews with administrators from 26 districts revealed that full- day classes were offered when they believed that it would provide an academic advantage to all students, as a response to parents, or as a strategy to prevent retention and school failure. Instructional strategies in the full-day kindergartens included a more relaxed pace than the half-day schedule, repetition of the same experiences, or the addition of remedial instruction to the usual kindergarten curriculum. Superintendents attributed increased academic performance and first- grade adjustment to full-day kindergarten and indicated that many parents desired full-day classes. Proposed state budgeting would phase in additional funding in 21 large urban districts. (Appendices contain budgetary information for extended day or full-day kindergartens in Ohio and 19 references.) (KDFB)

Descriptors: Alternate-day Schedules; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten; Outcomes of Education; Primary Education; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Scheduling; School Schedules
Identifiers: *Ohio; State Policy


EJ563075 PS527760
Title: Practitioner Perspective. Full-Day Kindergarten Perspective.
Author(s) Damian, Betsy
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v12 n4 p485-86 1997
Publication Date: 1997
Notes: This article is a commentary on a study by Elicker and Mathur; see PS 527 758.
ISSN: 0885-2006
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Opinion papers (120)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1998

Asserts that the study by Elicker and Mathur, with its commitment to high-quality early childhood education and developmentally appropriate practice, and its understanding of the complex demands on kindergarten curricula, can help educators look closely at their own programs in terms of teaching style and philosophical beliefs. (EV)

Descriptors: *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten; Outcomes of Education; Primary Education; Program Evaluation; Research Needs; Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Developmentally Appropriate Programs


EJ563073 PS527758
Title: What Do They Do All Day? Comprehensive Evaluation of a Full-Day
Kindergarten.
Author(s) Elicker, James; Mathur, Sangeeta
Source: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, v12 n4 p459-80 1997
Publication Date: 1997
ISSN: 0885-2006
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Evaluative (142)
Journal Announcement: CIJOCT1998

Evaluated, over a 2-year period, a new full-day kindergarten, including documentation of program processes and outcomes from multiple perspectives. Found that compared to half-day students, full-day students spent relatively more time in child-initiated activities and teacher-directed individual work. Parents and teachers cited benefits of flexibility, more time for child-initiated creative activities, and less stress; students exhibited higher first-grade readiness. (EV)

Descriptors: *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten; Learning Readiness; Outcomes of Education; Parent Attitudes; Primary Education; Program Evaluation; Teacher Attitudes
Identifiers: Child Centered Education


EJ561697 PS527699
Title: The Effect of Full-Day Kindergarten on Student Achievement: A Meta-Analysis.
Author(s) Fusaro, Joseph A.
Source: Child Study Journal, v27 n4 p269-77 1997
Publication Date: 1997
ISSN: 0009-4005
Language: English
Document Type: Journal articles (080); Reports--Research (143)
Journal Announcement: CIJSEP1998

The effects of full-day kindergarten on student achievement have been ambiguous. Some studies found beneficial effects of full-day kindergarten on student achievement as opposed to half-day kindergarten; others found no difference. This metaanalysis found that, overall, students who attended full-day kindergarten manifested significantly greater achievement than half-day attendees. (Author/EV)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten; Meta Analysis; *Outcomes of Education; Primary Education; Time Factors (Learning)


ED405129 PS025140
Title: What Should Parents Know about Full-Day Kindergarten?
Author Affiliation: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.(BBB16656); ACCESS ERIC, Rockville, MD.(BBB27976)
Pages: 9
Publication Date: 1997
Notes: This brochure is based on the 1995 ERIC-EECE Digest, "Full-Day Kindergarten Programs," written by Dianne Rothenberg; see ED 382 410.
Sponsoring Agency: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (EDD00036)
Contract No: RK95188001
Report No: NLE-97-2524
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Guides--Non-classroom (055); ERIC product (071)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Maryland
Journal Announcement: RIEJUL1997
Government Level: Federal
Target Audience: Parents

Noting that changes in American society and in education over the last 20 years have contributed to the popularity of all-day, every-day kindergarten programs, this brochure discusses the trend toward full-day kindergarten and provides an overview of full-day versus half-day programs. Topics covered include: why the full-day trend, what the research shows, and what makes a full-day program effective. Sources for additional information are included. (HTH)

Descriptors: Educational Research; Educational Trends; Enrollment Trends; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; Instructional Effectiveness; *Kindergarten; Parent Materials; Primary Education
Identifiers: *Program Characteristics


ED396853 PS024392
Title: Teachers' Perceptions of the All-Day, Alternating Day Kindergarten Schedule.
Author(s) Good, Linda
Pages: 45
Publication Date: June 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC02 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143)
Geographic Source: U.S.; South Dakota
Journal Announcement: RIENOV1996

This study examined kindergarten teachers' perceptions regarding the change in schedule from an everyday, half-day program to an alternating day, full-day program. Subjects included 37 female teachers in a small midwestern city who had almost completed the first year of the changed schedule. Results from a mail survey revealed teacher concerns, including: (1) poorer children's social skills because of increased fatigue, irritability, and aggression; (2) lengthened adjustment for students with separation anxiety; (3) decreased children's social and academic competence and increased stress level; (4) lack of school meals for disadvantaged children and negative role models in the lunch room; and (5) problems in meeting needs of children who were disadvantaged or who had special needs because of lack of consistency, routine, repetition, and continuity. Most teachers reported fatigue and irritability because of dealing with the same group of children all day, lack of planning time, and inconsistent scheduling of special activities. They believed that although parents liked the ease of transportation, some parents were confused by the schedule. Teachers thought that communication with parents was more difficult. In the classroom, teachers found they had more time for extended projects, play and self- directed activities; however, they gave up traditional calendar activities, increased review time, and found that theme units disintegrated. Teachers perceived a decrease in busing expenditures. Results suggest that the scheduling change was not in the best interest of children in this district. Recommendations for school districts were also drawn from the results, including recognizing children's needs, supporting teachers, and keeping parents informed. Recommendations for future research include drawing comparative data from matched groups in other schedules and rural and urban comparisons. (Contains 25 references.) (KDFB)

Descriptors: Academic Ability; *Alternate-day Schedules; Bus Transportation; Class Activities; Disabilities; Disadvantaged Youth; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; Interpersonal Competence; *Kindergarten; Lunch Programs; Mail Surveys; Parent School Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation; *Primary Education; Program Evaluation; *Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Behavior; Teacher Morale; Teacher Response


ED395691 PS024258
Title: The Effects of Full-Day Kindergarten on Student Achievement and Affect.
Author(s) Hough, David; Bryde, Suzanne
Pages: 16
Publication Date: April 1996
Notes: Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational
Research Association (New York, NY, April 8-12, 1996).
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Research (143); Speeches/meeting papers (150)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Missouri
Journal Announcement: RIEOCT1996

A quasi-experimental study explored the ways in which the full-day kindergarten program is beneficial and/or detrimental to students compared to the half-day and/or extended-day program. The sample consisted of six full-day schools matched with half- day schools on geographic location, school size, student norm-referenced data, and socioeconomic status of patrons. Data were collected by means of classroom observations; video- and audiotaped interviews of students, teachers, and parents; report cards of all students included in the sample; survey questionnaires administered to parents and teachers; and a norm-referenced achievement test administered to all students. The findings revealed the following: (1) greater utilization of small group activities by the full-day programs; (2) no significant difference in the amount of fatigue experienced by full-day and half-day students; (3) greater number of social interactions was experienced by full-day students; (4) full-day students outperformed half-day students on the majority of the Language Arts criteria and a few of the criteria used to measure mathematics skills; (5) full-day students outperformed half-day students on every criterion measured by norm- referenced achievement test; (6) overall satisfaction was higher for parents of children attending full-day and extended day programs (they believed that their children had a better chance for success in first grade over the half-day students); and (7) school attendance of full-day students was more regular than for other students. (BA)

Descriptors: *Academic Achievement; *Achievement Tests; Attendance Patterns; Classroom Research; Comparative Analysis; *Extended School Day; Fatigue (Biology); *Full-day Half-day Schedules; *Kindergarten Children; *Parent Attitudes; Quasiexperimental Design; Report Cards; School Schedules; Student Evaluation


ED396857 PS024440
Title: The Impact of Half-Day versus Full-Day Kindergarten Programs on Student Outcomes: A Pilot Project. Project Report.
Author(s) Nunnelley, Jeanette
Pages: 13
Publication Date: March 1996
Available from: EDRS Price MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Language: English
Document Type: Reports--Evaluative (142)
Geographic Source: U.S.; Indiana
Journal Announcement: RIENOV1996

This pilot study compared developmental outcomes, academic achievement, and parent involvement for children attending a Title I full-day kindergarten with those of children attending a Title I half-day program in New Albany, Indiana. The subjects were nine children from the full-day program and ten children from the half-day program. The curriculum in each of the classrooms was evaluated using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). To record student gains in September and May of the school year, teachers administered the Developmental Checklist of The Work Sampling System. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised) and a teacher- formulated checklist were also given. Demographic and attendance information was gained from parent/guardian interviews or school records. Parent involvement information was gained on frequency of checking out materials from a lending library and attendance at parent meetings. Findings revealed no differences in the curricula of the two programs. There were few differences in demographic data, except that a greater percentage of parents in the half-day program were employed than in the full- day program. There were no differences in any child assessment measures; the greatest gains for both groups were in the domains of language and literacy and mathematical thinking, and the smallest gains were in personal and social development. There was greater parent workshop attendance in the full-day program. Further study with a larger sample was recommended. (KDFB)

Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Developmental Programs; *Full-day Half-day Schedules; Individual Development; Interpersonal Competence; *Kindergarten; Kindergarten Children; Language Acquisition; Language Skills; Maturity Tests; *Outcomes of Education; Parent Participation; Primary Education; Time Factors (Learning); Vocabulary Development; Vocabulary Skills
Identifiers: Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I; Indiana (New Albany)